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Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun Son Yıllarında Çokeşlilik ve Dinî Polemikler: Fatma Âliye ve Mahmud Es‘ad'ın Ta‘addüd-i Zevcât'a Zeyli

POLYGAMY AND RELIGIOUS POLEMICS IN THE LATE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: FATMA ÂLIYE AND MAHMUD ES‘AD’S TA‘ADDÜD-İ ZEVCÂT’A ZEYL

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Although Ottomans accepted polygamy according to the tenets of Hanafi Islamic law, they argued over its social and legal aspects throughout the classical period. In the late 19th century these debates became explicitly connected to contemporary political events. Authors supported or opposed polygamy by referencing marriage and divorce rates in Europe, Protestant missionary activity in Africa, and their belief in the civilizational superiority of the Islamic world over the West. Polygamy was not only contested through modern politics. It was also discussed in light of the genre of Muslim religious polemics. In 1898 three modernist authors debated these issues in the journal Malûmat Fatma Aliye, legal scholar Mahmud Es'ad and Russian Muslim educator and reformer Ismail Gasprinskii. Their correspondence, entitled Ta'addû'd-i Zevcât'a Zeyl, deliberated polygamy with regarded to modernist political reform, European colonialism, capitulation agreements, and international trade. They also used arguments from anti-Christian religious polemics. By arguing these issues within the integrated field of religion, these authors used a Hamidian-era discourse describing an Islam compatible with Ottoman notions of modernity.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Osmanlılar Hanefi fıkhın ilkelerine göre çok eşliliği kabul etmelerine rağmen klasik dönem boyunca onun kurumsal ve yasal yönlerini tartışmışlardır. 19. Yüzyılın sonlarına doğru bu tartışmalar açıkça güncel siyasi olaylarla ilişkili hale gelmiştir. Yazarlar poligamiyi Avrupa'daki evlenme ve boşanma oranlarına, Afrika'daki Protestan misyonerlerin faaliyetlerine atıfta bulunarak ve İslam'ın Batı üzerindeki medeni üstünlüğüne olan inançlarıyla ya savundular ya da karşı çıktılar. Poligami sadece modern siyaset vasıtasıyla değil, bir bakıma Müslümanların dinî polemikleri etrafında da tartışıldı. 1898 yılında üç yenilikçi yazar, Fatma Aliye, hukukçu Mahmud Es'ad ve Rusyalı Müslüman eğitmen ve yenilikçi İsmail Gasprinskii bu sorunları Malûmât adlı dergide tartıştı. Bu kişiler Ta'addûd-i Zevcât'a Zeyl olarak adlandırılan aralarındaki yazışmalarda poligamiyi yenilikçi politik reformla, Avrupa sömürgeciliğiyle, kapitülasyon anlaşmalarıyla ve uluslararası ticaretle ilişkilendirerek tartıştılar. Ayrıca Hristiyanlık karşıtı dinî polemiklerden argümanlar da kullandılar. Söz konusu yazarlar, din ile iç içe geçmiş bu sorunları tartışırken İslam'la uyumlu bir Osmanlı yenilik düşüncesi tanımlayan II. Abdülhamid dönemi söylemini kullandılar.

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