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Bulanık veri zarflama analizi ile beton pompası seçimi

Concrete pump selection using fuzzy data envelopment analysis

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Abstract (2. Language): 
The aim of the study is to evaluate construction machine selection problems in terms of concrete pumps and to assert a method which may help concrete pump users and producers during the utilization and production process. For a decision maker, it is important to reach accurate information and solution in making an appropriate decision. Considering the enormous financial sizes of construction projects, it is clear that unfavourable decisions may cause loss of huge amount of money and time. In the construction industry, decisions are usually made among different alternatives. In this respect, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is an efficient method to evaluate a group of decision making units (DMUs) using multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs with comparative efficiency without knowing production functions. In conventional DEA models, the data used for evaluation are assumed to be classic (crisp) values. However, most of the real cases, it is always not possible to obtain only crisp data. To deal with fuzzy data, Fuzzy DEA (FDEA) method, which determines the relative efficiency by assigning fuzzy weights to DMUs inputs and outputs of which relative efficiencies are maximized, can be used. Separate problems for each DMU allow different weights to be used in computing the relative efficiency of different DMUs. Therefore, a need of common set of weights (CSW), which is done by three steps, occurs. In the first step, an upper bound is determined for inputs and outputs, and then, a CSW is determined in the second step. In the third step, the efficiency score is calculated through these findings. In this study α-cuts approach developed by Maeda et al. (1998) and improved by Saati et al. (2002) is used in the selection of concrete pumps. Concrete pumps were chosen in this study, according to their potential effect on the productivity and the quality of products and services in the construction job-site. Moreover, these machines require a great financial investment. However, since all of solution methods are based on some assumptions, it can be stated that there is no best evaluation technique to deal with selection problems. FDEA is a suitable method to deal with different kinds of data and constraints together and to consider one or more variables during the analysis. For construction companies, it is difficult and risky to determine the most favourable alternative. In order to overcome this problem, companies should decide their needs, and then, identify their alternatives. According to results obtained from the current case analysis, when considering the selling price as output, B3 was found out to be the most suitable concrete pump, followed by B2 and B1, respectively. For potential future studies, using FDEA approach companies may find out the less advantageous criterion of their products and take the necessary actions to produce the most preferred products in their field for gaining a competitive advantage in the market.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın amacı, inşaat sektöründeki makine seçimleri problemine, beton pompası açısından yaklaşmak ve beton pompası üreticileri ve kullanıcılarına, üretim ve satın alma süreçlerinde yardımcı olabilecek bir yöntem ortaya koymaktır. Bu kapsamda, çok ölçütlü karar verme problemlerini çözmek için kullanılan yöntemlerden biri olan veri zarflama analizi, elde edilen verilerin bazılarının bulanık sayılar olmaları nedeniyle, bulanık veri zarflama analizi (BVZA) olarak kullanılmıştır. Hesaplamalarda hem bulanık ve hem de normal sayıları aynı anda işleyebilmek için Madea ve diğerleri (1998) tarafından geliştirilen ve Saati ve diğerleri (2002) tarafından iyileştirilen α-kesim kümeleri yaklaşımından faydalanılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında, Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren üç farklı beton pompası üreticisi tarafından üretilen aynı tipteki birer adet beton pompasının özellikleri ve beton pompası kullanıcısı 70 adet firmanın makine sorumluları ile yapılan görüşmelerden elde edilen veriler kullanılarak, söz konusu beton pompalarının etkinlikleri hesaplanmıştır. Bu etkinlik hesaplaması sırasında Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes yöntemi ile elde edilen eşitlikler kullanılmıştır. Sonuç olarak, değerlendirmeye alınan üç farklı beton pompası içerisinden B3 kodlu beton pompası, etkinlik değeri en yüksek olan seçenek olarak belirlenmiştir. Bu çalışma sonucunda elde edilen bulguların; beton pompası üreticilerinin pazardaki durumlarını görmelerine, ürünlerini geliştirerek rekabet güçlerini artırmalarına ve potansiyel alıcı ve kullanıcıların en uygun ürünü seçmelerine yardımcı olabilecekleri düşünülmektedir. Ayrıca BVZA’nın, çok ölçütlü karar verme problemlerinde karşılaşılan farklı tür ve birimlerdeki verilerin, mevcut kısıtlarla birlikte değerlendirilmesinde kullanılabilecek oldukça faydalı bir yöntem olduğu ortaya konulmuştur. Bu yöntem ile bir veya birden çok parametre hedeflenerek hesaplamalar yapılabilmekte ve karar verme sürecinde avantaj sağlanabilmektedir.

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