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Hidrolik enerjisinden yararlanmada ülkemiz ve gelişmiş ülkelerin mevcut durumlarının analizi

Analysis of Current Conditions of Our Country and Developed Countries in Benefiting Hydraulic Energy

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Abstract (2. Language): 
One of the electricity generation production techniques is hydraulic power plants. In this work we have done, we have been informed about how hydraulic energy is produced, benefits and losses. In addition, the first studies in the field of hydraulic energy in our country and the changes that took place over the years have been investigated. We have been informed about investments in hydraulic energy and the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) in our country. The countries that use hydraulic energy most in the world and the installed powers of these countries are given. In the world, the use of hydraulic energy among renewable energy sources has been explained by means. Water, which has been in existence since the Earth's existence, has increased the importance of water resources for people to use only in areas such as meeting the need for water and using it for agriculture, but also facilitating transportation through ships built over time and using electricity to generate electricity using its potential. Although exploitation of the potential of the water power is a priority, it is very early to be used in the production of electric energy started. The first work on this area was made on October 1881 on the Wey River and the first hydroelectric power plant, "Central Power Station", was established. The operating principle of the hydroelectric power plant is to obtain a certain height of water by pulling sets made from concrete in front of the water (stream, river, stream etc.) in the stream. Potential increase in water that gains altitude. With the various equipment placed in the concrete blocks drawn in front of the potentially increasing water, a kinetic energy field is provided by passing through places called water turbine. Generators that are connected to the turbine also come to an electric energy by the rotation of the motor. If a hydroelectric power plant is to be established, the change in the annual amount of water in the area to be established should be detected. Access to the site where the power plant is installed should not be too difficult. Before setting up the plant, the environmental impacts should be well analyzed and the necessary measures must be taken before the plant is set up. Advantages of hydroelectric power plants; not only electricity production, but also the need to meet the water needs of the surrounding agricultural areas and the prevention of erosion by the afforestation of the power plant periphery. Disadvantages; Along with the rise of waters, there are negative sides such as the relocation of the settlements located at the edge of the river, the cutting of the trees in order to make transportation during the construction, and the damage to the ecological balance of the power plant zone. The interest in hydroelectric energy in our country has started in the 1900's years in the Ottoman Empire period and continues today without slowing down. Due to the abundant availability of river resources in our country and investments made in this area, hydroelectric energy is the first place in the production of electricity among renewable energy sources. Investments in hydroelectric energy should be made as a new employment area and as an energy dependent country. The necessary infrastructure for the establishment of regional projects such as GAP projects should be provided and facilities should be provided for those investing in this area. Brazil is receiving 80% of its electricity from hydropower plants due to the sufficient amount of rainfall. In 2013, the country produced 387,082 billion kWh of hydroelectric power plants in hydroelectric power plants. According to Canadian Hydro Power and the Clean Power Plan published in Canada in 2013, 62.5% of electricity is supplied from hydroelectric power plants. The United States, which has pioneered renewable energy research, is the country with the largest hydro-electric energy after China, Brazil and Canada in its hydroelectric power generation. According to July 2016 data, hydroelectric power plants produced 6,011 kWh of electricity. Most of the electricity of Venezuela is supplied from Guri Hydroelectric Power Plant. The electricity generated from this plant meets 73% of the energy needs of the country. The power of the country's electricity power is at 14.6 GW in 2013.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Elektrik enerjisi üretim tekniklerinden biri de hidrolik enerji santralleridir. Hidroelektrik enerji santralleri, suyun potansiyel enerjisini kinetik enerjiye dönüştürülmesinden yararlanılarak elektrik enerjisinin üretildiği elektrik santrali türüdür. Yüksek seviyede bulunan su, belirli bir potansiyel enerjiye sahiptir. Hidroelektrik enerji santralleri, bu potansiyel enerjinin suyun belirli bir yükseklikten aşağıya doğru kendi cazibesi ile salınması sonucu kinetik enerjiye dönüşmesi ile elektrik enerjiye çevrilmesi prensibi ile çalışır. Bu akış, suyun biriktirilmeden ya da set göl oluşturulmadan akarsu, nehir, dere vb. yerler üzerinden sağlanabileceği gibi, setler oluşturulması ile suyun belirli bir yerde toplanması, beton bloklarla ile yönlendirilmesi ile de olabilmektedir. Hidroelektrik enerjisi santralleri, ülkemizde ve gelişmiş dünya ülkelerinden çokça kullanılan elektrik enerjisi üretim yöntemlerinden biridir. Hatta ürettiğimiz enerjinin yaklaşık %25 gibi önemli bir oranını, hidroelektrik santrallerinden karşılamaktayız. Fakat uzun yıllar geçmesine rağmen, hala hidroelektrik santrallerinin avantaj ve dezavantajları tartışılmaya devam etmektedir. Yaptığımız bu çalışmada hidrolik enerjisinin nasıl üretildiği, faydaları ve zararları hakkında bilgi verilerek ülkemizde hidrolik enerjisi alanında yapılan ilk çalışmalar ve yıllar içerisinde meydana gelen değişimler araştırılmıştır. Ülkemizde hidrolik enerjisi santrallerine olan yatırımlar ve Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi (GAP) hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Dünyada hidrolik enerjisini en çok kullanan ülkeler ve bu ülkelerin kurulu güçleri, mevcut durumları ve politikaları hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Dünyada Yenilenebilir enerji kaynakları arasında hidrolik enerjisinin kullanım oranı şekillerle gösterilerek detaylı bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Böyle bir çalışma ülkemiz hidroelektrik enerji santralleri hakkında önemli bir araştırmayı sunmaktadır.

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