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Avalanche Control with Mitigation Measures: A Case study from Karaçam-Trabzon (Turkey)

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Karaçam Village (Trabzon), located in the eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey, suffers from critical problems as a result of snow avalanches. Interviews with local villagers described three important snow avalanche events which occurred in the region. Despite the incidence of dangerous snow avalanches in the Karaçam region, to date, no avalanche defense measures have been planned. In this study, three different snow avalanche scenario simulations (coded as 1, 2 and 3) corresponding to recurrent periods of 30, 100, and 300 years were developed, and Coulomb friction values were designated in order to provide reliable results. For all scenarios, the Coulomb friction values were selected as 0.26 in the release zone, 0.165 in the track and 0.33 in the run-out zone. Scenario 2, a snow avalanche event in the region with the recurrent period of 100 years, was found capable of causing damage to buildings located on the left side of the track as well as on the opposite slope. Hence, taking into account field surveys and observations, feasible counter-measures were planned according to Scenario 2. Construction of structures for supporting the snowpack in the starting zone, reforestation with supporting snow glide tripods, and installation of wind fences were recommended. In total, 508 m of steel snow bridges, 758 m of wooden snow bridges, reforestation with tripod supports over an area of 7 ha, and 1150 m of wind fences were included in the plan.



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