You are here

Variation in Some Soil Properties, Organic Matter and Soil Compaction after Logging Activities

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
In Turkey, three types of logging methods are widely used in forest operations; manpower, animal power and mechanical power. In recent years, the most common method involves skidding with farm tractors. In addition, the use of skidding through wire drawing is often applied in the most regions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of logging activities on soil properties, organic horizon, and soil compaction. Study area was selected from Sarıçam Sub-District Directorate in Kastamonu, Turkey. In the study area, logging activities were carried out by farm tractors and the skidding through wire drawing at two slope classes (30-60% and 60- 100%). Mineral soil samples (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm soil depths) were taken from four micro-ecological sites; skid road, logging residuals subbase, mineral soil without topsoil, and control (no activity). The soil samples were analyzed for soil pH, soil texture, permeability, bulk density (BD), water holding capacity (WHC), organic matter (OM), skeleton volume (SW) and soil compaction. Results showed that there were significant differences in soil compaction, soil texture, SW and OM between the four micro-ecological sites. However, the variation differed according to the soil depths and soil texture. The mineral soil without topsoil showed the lowest SW, sand and OM, whereas, it had the highest soil compaction and clay. The deepest soil part had the highest soil compaction. The results also showed higher dispersion ratios (higher than 15) which indicated higher erosion risk due to high land slope and low permeability values.



Aandahl, A.R., 1948. The characterization of slope
positions and their influence on total nitrogen
content of a few virgin soils of Western Iowa. Soil
Science Society of America Proceedings, 13:449-
Akay, A.E., Yuksel, A., Reis, M., Tutus, A., 2007. The
Impacts of Ground-based Logging Equipment on
Forest Soil. Polish Journal of Environmental
Studies. 16 (3): 371-376.
Balcı, N., 1996. Soil Conservation, Istanbul University
Faculty of Forestry, Department of Watershed
Management, University Publication No: 3947,
Faculty Publication No: 439, ISBN 975- 404-423-6,
Istanbul, Turkey, 1996 (in Turkish).
Bird, G.A., Chatarpaul, L., 1988. Effect of forest
harvest on decomposition and colonization of maple
leaf litter by soil microarthropods. Canadian
Journal of Soil Science, 68:29-40.
Bisset, J., Parkinson, D., 1980. Long-term effects of
fire on the composition and activity of the soil
microflora of a subalpine, coniferous forest.
Canadian Journal of Botany, 58:1704-1721.
Blake, G.R., Hartge K.H., 1986. Methods of Soil
Analysis: Part 1-Physical and Mineralogical
Methods, "14 Particle Densityl." Soil Science
Society of America, Book Series 5.1.
Bouyoucos, G.J., 1962. Hydrometer method improved
for making particle size analysis of soils. Agronomy
Journal, 54:464-465.
Brubaker, S.C., Jones, A.J., Lewis, D.T., Frank, K.,
1993. Soil properties associated with landscape
positions and management. Soil Science Society of
America Journal 57:235-239.
Childs, S.W., Shade S.P, Miles, D.W.R., Shepard, E.,
Froehlich, H.A., 1989. Soil physical properties:
importance to long-term forest productivity. Pages
53–66 in D. A. Perry, R. Meurisse, B. Thomas, R.
Miller, J. Boyle, J. Means, C. R. Perry, and R. F.
Powers, eds. Maintaining the long-term productivity
of Pacific Northwest forest ecosystems, pp.53-66.
Conlin, T.S.S., van den Driessche, R., 1996. Short-term
effects of soil compaction on growth of
Pinuscontorta seedlings. Canadian Journal of
Forest Research, 26(5):727-739.
Çepel, N., 1988. Soil Science. Istanbul University
Faculty of Forestry Publications No: 3416, Istanbul.
288 p.
Darcy, H., 1856, Les fontaines publiques de la ville de
Dijon: Paris, Victor Dalmont.
Demir, M., Makineci, E., Yilmaz, E., 2007. Invest
igation of timber harvesting impacts on herbaceous
cover, forest floor and surface soil properties on
skid road in an oak (Quercuspetrea L.) stand.
Building and Environment, 42:1194–1199.
Foth, H.D., 1990. Fundamentals of Soil Science, 8th
Edition, John Wiley and Sons.
Gomez, A., Powers, R.F., Singer, M.J., Horwath, W.R.,
2002. Soil compaction effects on growth of young
ponderosa pine following litter removal in
California's Sierra Nevada. Soil Science Society of
America Journal, 66(4):1334-1343.
Gülçur, F., 1974. Physical and chemical analysis
methods of soil. Istanbul University Faculty of
Forestry Publications No: 201, Istanbul.
Günal, H., Özgöz, E., 2015. Soil compaction.
Gaziosmanpaşa University, Faculty of Agriculture,
Tokat. 2 p.
Henderson, G.S., 1995. Soil organic matter: A link
between forest management and productivity. Pages
in W. W. McFee& J. M. Kelly, eds. Carbon forms
and functions in forest soils. Soil Science Society of
America, Madison, WI., pp.419–435.
Huang, S.W., Frankel, E.N., Schwarz, K., German,
J.B., 1996. Effect of pH on antioxidant activity of α-
tocopherol and trolox in oil-in-water emulsions.
Journal of Agricultural And Food Chemistry,
Jurgensen, M.F., Harvey, A.E., Graham, R.T., Page-
Dumroese, D.S., Tonn, J.R., Larsen, M.J., Jain,
T.B., 1997. Impacts of timber harvesting on soil
organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of
inland northwest forests. Forest Science, 43(2):234–
Kozlowski, T.T., 1999. Soil compaction and growth of
woody plants. Scandinavian Journal of Forest
Research, 14(6):596-619.
Kranabetter, J.M, Chapman, B.K., 1999. Effects of
forest soil compaction and organic matter removal
on leaf litter decomposition in central British
Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science,
Li, Q., Allen, H.L., Wilson, C.A., 2003. Nitrogen
mineralization dynamics following the
establishment of a loblolly pine plantation.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33:364-374.
Li, Q., Allen, H.L., Wollum II, A.G., 2004. Microbial
biomass and bacterial functional diversity in forest
Eur J Forest Eng 2016, 2(2): 82-88
soils: effects of organic matter removal, compaction,
and vegetation control. Soil Biology and
Biochemistry, 36:571–579.
Li, Q., Chen, J., Moorhead, D.L., DeForest, J.L.,
Jensen, R. and Henderson, R., 2007. Effects of
timber harvest on carbon pools in Ozark forests.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37(11):2337-
Makineci, E., Demir, M., Comez, A., Yilmaz, E. 2007.
Long-term harvesting effects on skid road in a fir
(Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) plantation forest.
Building and Environment, 44:1538-1543
Petri, H., Wagner, A., 1978. “Forstliche
standortsaufnahme”, Landwirtschaftsverlag Gmbtl.,
Munster Hiltrup.
Piatek, K.B., Allen, H.L., 1999. Nitrogen
mineralization in a pine plantation fifteen years after
harvesting and site preparation. Soil Science Society
of America Journal, 63(4):990-998.
Powers, R.F., Scott, D.A., Sanchez, F.G., Voldseth,
R.A., Page-Dumroese, D., Elioff, J.D., Stone, D.M.,
2005. The North American long-term soil
productivity experiment: findings from the first
decade of research. Forest Ecology and
Management, 220(1):31-50.
Prescott, C.E., 1997 Effects of clearcutting and
alternative silvicultural systems on rates of
decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in a
coastal montane coniferous forest. Forest Ecology
and Management, 95:253–260.
Savacı, G., Sariyildiz, T., 2015. The effects of timber
extraction activity on soil compaction: Daday-
Kastamonu Prodcution Forest Sample. Precision
Forestry in Forest Harvesting Activities, 4-6 June
2015, Ilgaz, Turkey. pp. 379-390.
Tan,X., Chang, S.X., Kabzems, R., 2005. Effects of soil
compaction and forest floor removal on soil
microbial properties and N transformations in a
boreal forest long-term soil productivity study.
Forest Ecology and Management, 217(2):158-170.
Turgut, B. 2012. Soil compaction in forest soils. SDU
Faculty of Forestry Journal, 13:66-73.
Yin, X., Perry, J.A., 1989 Influence of canopy removal
on oak forest floor decomposition. Canadian
Journal of Forest Research, 19, 204–214.
Young, I. M., K. Ritz., 2000. Tillage, habitat space and
function of soil microbes. Soil and Tillage
Research, 53(3): 201-213.

Thank you for copying data from