You are here

Scaffolding Strategies Applied by Student Teachers to Teach Mathematics

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
Scaffolding is a teaching strategy that provides individualized support based on the learner’s Zone of the Proximal Development (Chang, Sung & Chen, 2002). In scaffolding instruction, another, more knowledgeable individual, provides scaffolds or supports to facilitate the learner’s development. Roehler & Cantlon (1997) identified five different strategies in instructional scaffolding: the modeling of desired behaviors, the offering of explanations, inviting students to participate, verifying and clarifying student understandings, and inviting students to contribute clues. In this research, the aim has been to analyze student teachers’ scaffolding strategies as they have been applied to the teaching of mathematics. The research was conducted with thirteen student teachers in their fourth year of study in Bachelor of Education (Classroom Teacher) Programs. Nine student teachers worked with two fifth grader learners, while the other four worked with three. In order to determine the participant students, a geometry test relating to the first unit of the fifth grade mathematics curriculum was administered. The student teachers worked on a one-to-one basis with students who were having difficulty in geometry and this scaffolding process was recorded. According to the results; inviting student participation was found to be the most commonly used scaffolding strategy. The least common were inviting students to contribute clues and the modeling of desired behaviors. While the majority of student teachers had similar tendencies, certain others had different inclinations. However, the reasons for their preferences in using these scaffolding strategies were not clear.

REFERENCES

References: 

Anghileri, J. (2006). Scaffolding practices that enhance mathematics learning. Journal of Mathematics
Teacher Education, 9, 33-52.
Bean, T. W., & Patel Stevens, L. (2002). Scaffolding reflection for preservice and inservice teachers.
Reflective Practice, 3(2), 205–218.
Chang, K., Chen, I., & Sung, Y. (2002). The effect of concept mapping to enhance text
comprehension and summarization. The Journal of Experimental Education 71(1), 5-23.
Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. E. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of
reading, writing, and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing, learning, and instruction:
Essays in honor of Robert Glaser (pp. 453-494). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dennen, V. P. (2004). Cognitive Apprenticeship in Educational Practice: Research on Scaffolding,
Modeling, Mentoring, and Coaching as Instructional Strategies. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.),
Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (2nd ed., pp. 813-
828). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gaskins, I.W., Rauch, S., Gensemer, E., Cunicelli, E., O’Hara, C., Six, L., & Scott, T. (1997).
Scaffolding the development of intelligence among children who are delayed in learning to read.
In K. Hogan & M. Pressley (Eds.), Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and
issues (pp. 43-73). Cambridge, MA: Brookline.
Kavanoz, H. S & Yüksel G. / IJRTE 2010, 1(Special Issue): 25-36
The International Journal of Research in Teacher Education (IJRTE)
36
Hartman, H. (2002). Scaffolding & Cooperative Learning. Human Learning and Instruction (pp. 23-
69). New York: City College of City University of New York.
Holton, D. & Clark, D. (2006). Scaffolding and metacognition. International Journal of Mathematical
Education in Science and Technology, 37, 127-143.
Lange, V. L. (2002). Instructional scaffolding. Retrieved January 25, 2011 from
http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~group4/Cano/Cano%20Paper.doc.
McKenzie, J. (1999). Scaffolding for success. From Now On: The Educational Technology Journal,
9(4). Retrieved January 25, 2011, from www.fno.org/dec99/scaffold.html
Mercer, N. & Fisher, E. (1993) How do teachers help children to learn? An analysis of teachers'
interventions in computer-based activities. Learning and Instruction, 2, 339-355.
Miles, M. B. & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook, (2nd
ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Roehler, R. L. & Cantlon, D. C. (1997). Scaffolding: A powerful tool in social constructivist
classrooms. In K. Hogan, & M. Pressley (Eds.), Scaffolding Student Learning: Instructional
Approaches and Issues. Brookline Books, Cambridge.
Steffe, L. (1993). Interaction and children’s mathematics. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of
the American Educational Research Association, Atlanta, Georgia, April.
Stone, A. (1998) The Metaphor of Scaffolding: Its Utility for the Field of Learning Disabilities.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, 3( 4), 344-364
Van de Pol, J.; Volman, M. & Beishuizen, J. (2010). Scaffolding in Teacher–Student Interaction: A
Decade of Research. Educational Psychology Review,22, 271–296
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. . In M.
Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner and E. Souberman, (Eds.), Cambridge: Harvard University
Press.
Williams, L. (2008). Tiering and scaffolding: Two strategies for providing access to important
mathematics. Teaching Children Mathematics, 14(6), 324-330.
Wood, D., Bruner, J.S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of
Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89-100.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com