You are here

Metacognitive awareness and the fluency of task-based oral output across planning conditions: The case of Iranian TEFL students

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Author NameUniversity of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
The present inquiry inspected the impact of metacognitive awareness on the fluency of 114 Iranian TEFL learners' task-based oral output. The participants in six intact classes were selected from a population of 120 English sophomores based on their scores on proficiency pre-test. The classes were randomly assigned as two tripartite groups of experimental and control participants each embracing three groups of pre-task planners (PTP), on-line task planners (OLP), and pre and on-line task planners (POLP). The fifteen-session metacognitive awareness program in the form of a topic-based listening and speaking course was based on Cotterall's (2000) principles of autonomous learning and three sets of metacognitive strategies, centering learning, arranging and planning learning and evaluating learning (Oxford, 1990). Employing a narrative task type, the researcher collected the data using a 2x3 factorial design with two levels of metacognitive awareness and three levels of planning. It was hypothesized that fluency would improve through metacognitive awareness under various planning conditions. Twoway Repeated Measures and One-way ANOVA analyses of the research data revealed significant fluency gains in all experimental participants compared to the control ones and in the control POLP planners. The findings have pedagogical implications for educators and teachers and highlight the need for strategic investment.



Allwright, R. L. (1981). What do we want teaching materials for? English Language Teaching Journal, 36(1), 5-18.
Anderson, J. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications (2nd ed.). New York: Freeman.
Azabdaftari, B. (2013). On the implications of Vygotskian concepts for second language teaching. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research, 1(2), 99-114.
Birjandi, P., & Seifoori, Z. (2009). The effect of training and task planning on the complexity of Iranian learners' oral speech. The Journal of Applied Linguistics, 2(4), 57-102.
Zohreh Seifoori/Metacognitive awareness and ...
Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies in language and using a second language. Harlow: Longman.
Dickinson, L. (1987). Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dornye, Z. (1995). On the teachability of communication strategies. TESOLQuarterly, 29, 55-85.
Ejzenberg, R. (2000). The juggling act of oral fluency: A psycho-sociolinguistic metaphor. In
H. Riggenbach (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency (pp. 287-314). Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, G. & Sinclair, B. (1989). Learning to learn English: A course in learner training. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Finney, D. (2002). The ELT curriculum: A flexible model for a changing world. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice (pp.69-79). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Foster, P. (1996). Doing the task better: How planning time influences students' performance. In D. Willis, & J. Willis, (Eds.), Challenge and change in language teaching (pp.126-135). Macmillan Heinemann.
Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (1996). The influence of planning and task type on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 18, 299-323.
Foster, P. & Skehan, P. (1999). The influence of planning and focus of planning on task-based performance. Language Teaching Research, 3, 215-247.
Fulcher, G. (1996). Does thick description lead to smart tests? A data-based approach to rating scale construction. Language Testing, 13, 208 - 238.
Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching. Essex: Pearson Education.
Heaton, J. B. (1975). Beginning composition through pictures. London: Longman Group Limited.
Karmiloff Smith, A. (1992). A developmental perspective on cognitive science. Cambridge: MA: MIT Press.
Kormos, J., & Denes, M. (2004). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners, System, 32, 145-164.
Kozulin, A. (1998). Psychological tools: A sociocultural approach to education. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press.
, Gindis, B., Ageyev, V.S., Miller, S. M. (2003). Vygotsky's educational theory in cultural context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). Beyond methods: Microstrategies for language teaching. London: Yale University Press.
Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research 4(1), (Jan., 2016) 11-26
Lantolf, J. P. (2009). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levelt, W. (1989). Speaking, from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Levelt, W. (1999). Producing spoken language. In C. Brown, P. Haagoord (Eds.), The neurocognition of language (pp. 83-122). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mehnert, U.
The effects of different lengths of time for planning on second language performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 83-108.
Nunan, D. (1988). The learner-cantered curriculum. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. (1991). Communicative tasks in the language classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 279-295.
Nunan, D., & Lamb, C. (2001). Managing the learning process. In D. R. Hall & Hewings (Eds.), Innovation in English language teaching (pp. 27-45). London: Routledge.
O'Malley, J. M. & Chamot. A. U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Oxford, R. L. (1995). Style analysis survey (SAS): Assessing your own learning and working styles.
In J. M. Reid (Ed.), Learning styles in the ESL/EFL classroom (pp. 208-215). Boston: MA: Heinle & Heinle.
Ortega, L. (1999). Planning and focus on form in L2 oral performance. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 21, 108-148.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies: What every teacher should know. Heinle and Heinle.
Poulisse, N. (1997). Language production in bilinguals. In A.M.B. de Groot, J.F. Kroll (Eds.), Tutorials in bilingualism: Psycholinguistic perspectives (201-224). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rekart, D., & Dunkel, P. (1992). The utility of objective (computer) measures of the fluencyof speakers of English as a second language. Applied Language Learning, 3, 65-85.
Richards, J. C., Platt, J., & Weber, H. (1985). Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. London: Longman.
Riggenbach, H. (1991). Towards an understanding of fluency: A microanalysis of normative speaker conversation. Discourse Processes, 14, 423-441.
Rouhi, A. & Saeed-Akhtar, A. (2008). Planning time: A mediating technique between fluency and accuracy in task-based teaching. The Journal of AppliedLinguistics,1, 103-133.
Saeghi Bennis, A. R., & Edalati Bazzaz, V. (2014). The impact of pushed output on accuracy and fluency of Iranian EFL learners' speaking. Iranian Journal of Language Teaching Research,
2(2), 51-72.
Zohreh Seifoori/Metacognitive awareness and .
Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in search of useful definitions. Applied Linguistics, 11,
Schmidt, R. (1992). Psychological mechanisms underlying second language fluency. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 357-385.
Schmidt, R. (1994). Deconstructing consciousness in search of useful definitions for applied linguistics. AILA Review, 11-26.
Seifoori, Z., & Birjandi, P. (2008). The impact of mixed planning on the accuracy of Iranian learners' oral performance. Journal of Applied Linguistics, 1(3), 177-203.
Seifoori, Z., & Goudarzi, S. (2012). The effect of oral production on grammatical accuracy And task-based fluency in speech of Iranian EFL learners. Quarterly Journal of Educational Sciences, 5, 18. 54-66.
Seifoori, Z., & Vahidi, Z. (2012). The impact of fluency strategy training on Iranian EFL learners' speech under online planning conditions. Language Awareness, 21 (1-2), 101-112.
Skehan, P. (1996). A framework for the implementation of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics, 17, 1, 38-62.
Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tharp, R. G., & Gallimore, R. (1988). Rousing minds to life: Teaching, earning, and schooling in social context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wigglesworth, G. (1997). An investigation of planning time and proficiency level on oral test discourse. Language Testing, 14, 85-106.
Wenden, A. L. (2002). Learner development in language learning. Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 32-55.
Yuan, F. & Ellis, R. (2003). The effects of pre-task planning and on-line planning on fluency, complexity and accuracy in L2 oral production. Applied Linguistics, 24(1), 1-27.

Thank you for copying data from