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İKTİSADİ GELİŞME VE DEMOKRASİ İLİŞKİSİ ÜZERİNE BİR SINAMA

A TEST ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND DEMOCRACY

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Two of the most active fields in economics in recent years have been growth theory and political economy. It can be said that the relationship between economic development and democracy (political freedoms) is the intersection point of these fields. In this study, two questions, whether economic development level create democracy (Lipset hypothesis) and whether democracy increase economic growth or not, has been discussed and tested. In order to test these relationship, the cross-country data of 75 underdeveloped and/or developing countries has been used and Lipset hypothesis has been tested by OLS, similar to models of Barro (1997) and Nelson and Singh (1998). In addition, the relationship among economic growth, income distribution and democracy have been tested with the available data on Gini coefficient of the 55 devel­oping countries. The results of our study is as follows: The effect of the level of economic devel­opment on democracy is positive and statistically significant, however, any significant relationship between democracy and growth rates couldn't be found. Although we couldn't see any sensible relationship between economic freedom and political free­dom, we have found that the effect of economic freedom on growth rate is positive and statistically significant. On the other hand we haven't seen any significant relationship between income inequality and growth rates.
Abstract (Original Language): 
İktisadi' Büyüme ve Politik İktisat, İktisat Biliminin son yıllardaki en aktif iki alanını oluşturmaktadır. İktisadi büyüme ve demokrasi (politik özgürlükler) ilişkisi de her iki alanın adeta kesişim noktasıdır. Bu çalışmada, öncelikle ekonomik gelişmenin demokrasi yaratıp yaratmadığı (Lipset Hipotezi), daha sonra da demokrasinin eko­nomik büyümeyi artırıp arttırmadığı konusu, ilgili argümanlar çerçevesinde tartışıl­maktadır. Bu ilişkilerin ampirik olarak geçerliliği, 75 azgelişmiş/ gelişmekte olan ülke­ye ait uluslararası veriler kullanılarak, Barro (1997) ve Nelson ve Singh (1998) model­lerine benzer şekilde OEKK yöntemi ile test edilmiştir. Ayrıca ekonomik büyüme, gelir dağılımı ve demokrasi ilişkisi, eldeki 55 gelişmekte olan ülkeye ait Gini katsa­yıları verileri kullanılarak modelleş tiril ip yine OEKK yöntemi ile test edilmiştir. Çalış­mamızın bulgularına göre, ekonomik gelişmişlik seviyesi demokrasiyi pozitif olarak ve anlamlı bir şekilde etkilemektedir. Ancak demokrasi ile büyüme oranları arasında anlamlı bir ilişld bulunamamıştır. Ayrıca ekonomik özgürlükler ile demokrasi arasın­da anlamlı bir ilişki gözlenemezken, ekonomik özgürlüğün büyüme oranlarını pozitif ve anlamlı olarak etkilediği bulunmuştur. Gelir dağılımı eşitsizliği ve büyüme oranları arasında da anlamlı bir ilişki görünmemektedir.

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