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Siyah Alaca ve Esmer Irk İneklerde Buzağılama Öncesi Vücut Kondisyon Skorunun 305 Gün ve Test-Günü Süt Verimi Üzerine Etkileri

Effect of Body Condition Score at Calving on 305-day and Test-day Milk Yield in Holstein-Friesian and Brown Swiss Cows

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Abstract (2. Language): 
The study included 37 cows, 20 of which were of the Holstein-Friesian and 17 of which were of the Brown Swiss breed at the Agricultural Institute’s farm in Stara Zagora. The cows from both breeds were kept together under similar rearing and feeding conditions. A free-range production system with individual boxes for rest was applied. The cows were divided into three technological groups depending on their physiological condition, respectively: dry period, first lactation period (up to the 120 th day of lactation) and second lactation period. Feeding was based on a complete ration including maize silage, alfalfa haylage, concentrated feed, and vitamin mineral premix. The concentrated feed during lactation was in accordance with the group’s mean milk yield. The co ws’ body condition score (BCS) was measured monthly per a 5-grade evaluation system with accuracy of up to 0.5 points. The body condition score of the cows at calving was measured 7 to 10 days before calving. The BCS at calving had a significant influence on the 305-day lactation milk yield, test-day milk yield and peak lactation production. The cows that reached a BCS of 3.5 – 4 points at calving had sufficient body reserves for the lactation’s beginning, which allowed them to reach higher milk yield during the peak of lactation, and higher yield for 305 days compared to cows with grades of 3 or lower at calving. The Holstein-Friesian cows had better mobilisation potential than Brown Swiss cows. At BCS of 2 to 2.5 points at calving, Holstein-Friesian cows reached a milk yield that was only 876 kg less than those of cows with high BCS (3.5 – 4 points), whereas in Brown Swiss cows the difference was 1,400 kg. The cows of the Brown Swiss breed had preserved to a greater extent the defence reaction to reduce milk production when body reserves were diminished.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Araştırma, Stara Zagora Ziraat Enstitüsü Çiftliğindeki 20 baş Siyah Alaca ve 17 baş Esmer olmak üzere toplam 37 baş inek ile yürütülmüştür. Her iki ırktan inekler benzer yetiştirme ve besleme koşullarında bakılmışlardır. İneklere serbest gezinmeli sistemde dinlenme için bireysel bokslar sağlanmıştır. İnekler fizyolojik durumlarına göre üç gruba ayrılmışlardır: a) Kuru dönem, b) I. laktasyon periodu (laktasyonun 120. gününe kadar) ve c) II. laktasyon periyodu. Mısır silajı, kuru yonca, konsantre yem ve vitamin - mineral premiksi içeren rasyona dayalı bir besleme programı uygulanmıştır. Laktasyon süresince verilen konsantre yem, grubun ortalama süt verimine göre düzenlenmiştir. İneklerin vücut kondisyon skoru (VKS), 5 dereceli değerlendirme sistemi ile 0,5 puanlık kesinlik ile aylık olarak ölçülmüştür. Buzağılama öncesi VKS, buzağılamadan 7-10 gün önce ölçülmüştür. Buzağılama öncesi VKS’nun 305-gün laktasyon süt verimi, test günü süt verimi ve pik süt verimi üzerine etkisi önemli bulunmuştur. Buzağılama öncesi VKS 3,5-4 puan olan ineklerin laktasyon başlangıcında yeterli vücut rezervlerine sahip oldukları ve böylece VKS 3 ve daha az olan ineklerle karşılaştırıldığında laktasyon pikinde daha yüksek süt verimine ulaştıkları ve daha yüksek 305 -gün laktasyon süt verimine sahip oldukları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Siyah Alaca ineklerin Esmer ineklerle karşılaştırıldığında daha iyi mobilizasyon potansiyeline sahip oldukları gözlenmiştir. Siyah Alaca ırkında buzağılama öncesi VKS 2-2,5 olan inekler, 3,5-4 VKS olanlara kıyasla sadece 876 kg daha az süt verimine sahip iken, Esmer ineklerde aradaki fark 1400 kg olarak belirlenmiştir. Vücut rezervleri a zaldığında Esmer ırk inekler süt verimini azaltma savunma reaksiyonunu daha fazla ortaya koymuşlardır.

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