You are here

ÜLKE MARKA İMAJINI YÖNETMEK: TÜRKİYE İMAJI ÜZERİNE BİRLEŞİK KRALLIK GAZETELERİNİN İÇERİK ANALİZİ

MANAGING COUNTRY BRAND IMAGE: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE UK NEWSPAPERS ON THE IMAGE OF TURKEY

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (2. Language): 
Countries, like companies, are competing with each other and using marketing tools so as to promote their country to increase their share of tourists, investors, students. Studies highlighted that a strong country brand image creates competitive advantage, thus it needs to be managed strategically. It is also argued that people form an image about a country by gathering information from different sources. Among those, media is proven to be an effective source which helps people to create a perception about a country, its products, its people, its potential etc. With the objective of exploring how the image of Turkey may be affected by the news appearing in the newspapers, a content analysis has been done on four of the UK national newspapers’ online sites in 2014. In total, 1081 news were detected and analyzed. Six main dimensions, namely economy, political, socio-cultural, geographical aspects, sports and tourism have been identified. The content analysis indicates that most of the news that have taken place in the UK media are negative. Thus it can be argued that brand image of Turkey may have deteriorated in 2014 in the UK. Therefore, a proactive country image management strategy may be suggested to prevent negative consequences.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Ülkeler daha fazla turist, yatırımcı ve öğrenci çekebilmek için şirketler gibi birbiriyle yarışmak zorundadırlar ve bunu başarmak için de pazarlama araçlarını kullanırlar. Farklı araştırmalar güçlü ülke imajının rekabet avantajı sağladığını ortaya koymaktadır. Bu nedenle ülke imajının bir strateji çerçevesinde yönetilmesi gerekmektedir. Ülke imajının oluşmasında çeşitli kaynaklar etkili olmaktadır, bunların başında da medya gelmektedir. Medyanın insanların kafasında bir ülke hakkında algı oluşturmasına etki eden önemli bir kaynak olduğu çeşitli çalışmalarda ortaya konmaktadır. Yazılı basında yer alan haberlerin Türkiye’nin imajını hangi yönde etkileyebileceğini araştırmak amacıyla, 2014 yılında, dört ulusal Birleşik Krallık gazetesinin Internet sitelerinde yayınlanan haberler incelenmiştir. Toplam 1081 haber tespit edilmiş ve analiz edilmiştir. Yapılan içerik analizi sonucunda belirlenen her 6 boyutta da Birleşik Krallık medyasında yer alan haberlerin çoğunun negatif olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Bulgular Birleşik Krallık’taki Türkiye imajının olumsuz yönde değişime uğramış olabileceğini ve bu sebeple bu ülkede olumlu algı yaratacak şekilde Türkiye imajının yönetilmesi gerektiğini ortaya koymaktadır.

REFERENCES

References: 

Ahmad, H. M. (2005). The Media-foreign Policy Relationship: Pakistan’s Media Image and United States Foreign Policy. ProQuest.
Alexa.com. (2015). Alexa - Top Sites in United Kingdom. Retrieved November 6, 2015, from http://www.alexa.com/topsites/countries/GB.
Altinbasak, I. (2004). Modeling the constituents of the image of a country for the determination of priorities related to strategic image management–The case of Turkey. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation.
Altinbasak, I. (2008). Understanding the prejudices in order to improve the image of Turkey: a qualitative study on the prejudices of Italians about Turkey. Bogazici Journal of Economics and Administrative Sciences, 22(1+2), 35–51.
Altinbasak, I. (2009). Marketing of a Country for International Investments-The Case of Turkey. Paper presented at the annual meeting of GBATA-Global Business and Technology Association Annual Meeting. Prague, Czech Republic.
Altinbasak, I. and Yalcin, E. (2010). City Image and Museums: the Case of Istanbulnull. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(3): 241–251.
Anholt, S. and GFK Roper. (2008). 2008 Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands IndexSM Report Highlights.http://www.gtai.de/GTAI/Content/CN/Invest/ _SharedDocs/Downloads/Studies/diw-wochenbericht-9-2010.pdf.
Anholt, S. and GFK Roper. (2009). Anholt-Gfk Roper Nation Brands Index. http://www.simonanholt.com/Research/research-introduction.aspx. (07.10.2015).
Baloglu, S. and Mangaloglu, M. (2001). Tourism Destination Images of Turkey, Egypt, Greece, and Italy as Perceived by US-based Tour Operators and Travel Agents. Tourism Management, 22(1): 1–9.
Baloglu, S. and McCleary, K. W. (1999). U.S. International Pleasure Travelers’ Images of Four Mediterranean Destinations: A Comparison of Visitors and Nonvisitors. Journal of Travel Research, 38(2): 144–152.
Bilkey, W. J. and Nes, E. (1982). Country-of-origin Effects on Product Evaluations. Journal of International Business Studies, 13(1): 89–100.
Brand Finance. (2014). Brand Finance Nation Brands 2014, http://brandfinance.com/knowledge-centre/reports/brand-finance-nation-br... (06.11.2015).
84 Pazarlama ve Pazarlama Araştırmaları Dergisi, Sayı: 17, Ocak 2016, ss. 65-85
Brand Finance. (2015). Brand Finance Nation Brands 2015., http://brandfinance.com/knowledge-centre/reports/brand-finance-nation-br... (06.11.2015).
Elvestad, E. and Blekesaune, A. (2008). Newspaper Readers in Europe: A Multilevel Study of Individual and National Differences. European Journal of Communication, 23(4): 425–447.
European Commission. (2014a). European Neighbourhood Policy and Enlargement Negotiations-Turkey., http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/ countries/detailed-country information/turkey/index_en.htm (06.11.2015).
European Commission. (2014b). Public Opinion Analysis-Standard Eurobarometer 81., http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb81/ eb81_en.htm (06.11.2015).
European Commission. (2014c). Public Opinion Analysis - Standard Eurobarometer 82. http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb82/ eb82_en.htm (06.11.2015).
Fan, Y. (2006). Branding the nation: What is being branded? Journal of Vacation Marketing, 12(1): 5–14. doi:10.1177/1356766706056633.
FutureBrand. (2014). Country Brand Index 2014. http://www.futurebrand.com/ cbi/2014 (06.11.2015).
Haubl, G. (1996). A Crossnational Investigation of the Effects of Country of Origin and Brand Name on the Evaluation of a New Car. International Marketing Review, 13(5): 76–97.
Jaffe, D. E. and Nebenzahl, D. I. (2001). National image and competitive advantage. The theory and practice of country-of-origin effect. Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Kaynak, E., Kucukemiroglu, O. and Hyder, A. S. (2000). Consumers’ Country of Origin (COO) Perceptions of Imported Products in a Homogenous Less Developed Country. European Journal of Marketing, 34(9/10): 1221 – 1241.
Kemming, J. D. and Sandikci, O. (2007). Turkey’s EU Accession as a Question of Nation Brand Image. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 3(1): 31–41.
McNelly, J. T. and Izcaray, F. (1986). International News Exposure and Images of Nations, 546.
Mihailovich, P. (2006). Kinship Branding: A Concept of Holism and Evolution for the Nation Brand. Place Branding, 2(3): 229–247.
Papadopoulos, N. and Heslop, L. (2002). Country Equity and Country Branding: Problems and Prospects. Journal of Brand Management, 9(4): 294–314.
Managing Country Brand Image: A Content Analysis of The UK Newspapers On The Image of Turkey 85
PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2014). UK Economic Outlook July 2014: The UK’s Standing in the World. http://www.pwc.co.uk/services/economics-policy/insights/uk-economic-outl... (09.11.2015).
Saleem, N. (2007). US Media Framing of Foreign Countries Image: An Analytical Perspective. Canadian Journal of Media Studies, 2(1): 130–162.
Shiekh, M. D. (1997). Editorial Treatment of US Foreign Policy in the New York Times: The Case Study of Pakistan (1980-90). National Development and Security Quarterly, (2).
Stravinskiene, J., Dauksaite, I. and Dovaliene, A. (2014). Country Image Formation in the Online Media: The Case of United Kingdom in the Lithuanian Online Media. International Journal of Economic Practices and Theories. 4(2): 146-161.
Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, W. S. (2015). Relations between Turkey and the United Kingdom. Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. http://www.mfa.gov.tr/relations-between-turkey-and-the-united-kingdom.en... (03.10.2015).
Turkstat. (2015). Turkish Statistical Institute. http://www.tuik.gov.tr/ PreTablo.do?alt_id=1046 (09.10.2015).
UNWTO. (2014a). Exports from International Tourism Rise to US$ 1.5 Trillion in 2014. http://media.unwto.org/press-release/2015-04-15/exports-international-to... (02.12.2015).
UNWTO. (2014b). UNWTO Annual Report 2014. World Tourism Organization UNWTO. http://www2.unwto.org/annualreport2014 (06.11.2015).
Van Dijk, T. A. (2001). Opinions and Ideologies in the Press. In Approaches to media discourse (pp. 21–63). Oxford OX4 IJF: Blackwell Publishers.
Zelizer, B. and Allan, S. (2002). Journalism After 9/11. London: Routledge.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com