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11. SINIF ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN BİLİŞSEL YAPILARINDAKİ DEĞİŞİMİN KELİME İLİŞKİLENDİRME TESTİ KULLANARAK İNCELENMESİ: KİMYASAL DENGE ÖRNEĞİ

AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN THE COGNITIVE STRUCTURES OF 11TH GRADE STUDENTS USING THE WORD ASSOCIATION TEST: THE CASE OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

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DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.11911

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Cognitive structures offer an opportunity to assess what learners know with respect to a particular area of knowledge. It is therefore important to identify the cognitive structures that may also influence the structuring of new knowledge and examine how these change with instruction. This study used the word association test to reveal the cognitive structures of 11th grade students (ages 15-16) in the context of the basic concepts taught in the unit on chemical equilibrium and to understand how these changed after the instruction. In line with this goal, a study was conducted with 30 students enrolled in the 11th grade of a secondary school in the city of Izmir. In collecting data for the study, an association test consisting of ten stimulus words was implemented before and after the instruction. The stimulus words used in the test were, "equilibrium", "catalyzer", "endothermic reaction", "exothermic reaction", "pressure", "molar concentration", "reversible reaction", "maximum disorder", "rate of forward reaction" and "rate of reverse reaction". In the analysis, responses for each stimulus word is counted, a frequencies table is prepared, and mind maps with different cut-off points were drawn up. The results of the study indicated that students were most likely to associate the concept of equilibrium with physical equilibrium in their mind maps before the instruction, responding with words such as "weighing scale" or "balance". At the same time, it was found that the stimulus words "maximum disorder" and "reverse reaction" did not appear in their mind maps and that the responses given to the other concept stimuli revealed very few associations between them before the instruction. Following the instruction however, the students were able to associate the concept of equilibrium with chemical equilibrium; all the stimulus words on the mental map were defined and it was seen that the students were able to form substantially more associations between the stimulus words. These findings show that the cognitive structures of the 11th grade students with respect to "chemical equilibrium" changed positively after the instruction.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bilişsel yapılar, öğrenenlerin özel bir bilgi alanında ne bildiklerini değerlendirme fırsatı sunmaktadırlar. Bu yüzden, yeni bilginin yapılandırılmasını etkileyebilecek bilişsel yapıların tanımlanması ve öğretim ile bunların nasıl değiştiğinin incelenmesi önemlidir. Bu çalışmada 11. sınıf öğrencilerinin (15-16 yaş) kimyasal denge ünitesinin temel kavramlarına ilişkin bilişsel yapılarını ortaya çıkarmak ve bunların öğretim sonrası nasıl değiştiğini ortaya koymak amacıyla kelime ilişkilendirme testi kullanılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, İzmir il merkezindeki bir ortaöğretim kurumundaki 11. sınıflardaki 30 öğrenci ile bir çalışma yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak, 10 uyarıcı kelimeyi içeren kelime ilişkilendirme testi öğretim öncesi ve sonrası uygulanmıştır. Testte kullanılan uyarıcı kelimeler: “denge”, “katalizör”, “endotermik tepkime”, “egzotermik tepkime”, “basınç”, “molar derişim”, “tersinir tepkime”, “maksimum düzensizlik”, “ileri tepkime hızı”, “geri tepkime hızı” dır. Verilerin analizinde, her bir uyarıcı kelimeye verilen cevaplar sayılmış, frekans tablosu hazırlanmış ve farklı kesme noktalarındaki zihin haritaları çizilmiştir. Çalışmanın sonuçları, öğrencilerin öğretim öncesi zihin haritalarında çoğunlukla denge kavramını terazi ve eşitlik gibi cevaplar ile fiziksel denge ile ilişkilendirme eğiliminde olduklarını göstermektedir. Aynı zamanda, öğretim öncesinde “maksimum düzensizlik” ve “ tersinir tepkime” uyarıcı kelimelerinin zihin haritalarında yer almadığı, diğer uyarıcı kelimeler arasında da çok az bağlantının kurulabildiği saptanmıştır. Buna karşın öğretim sonrasında ise, öğrenciler denge kavramını kimyasal denge ile ilişkilendirebilmişler, tüm uyarıcı kelimler zihin haritalarında saptanabilmiş ve öğrencilerin uyarıcı kelimeler arasında daha fazla ilişki kurabildikleri saptanmıştır. Bu bulgular, 11. sınıf öğrencilerinin “kimyasal dengeye” yönelik bilişsel yapılarının öğretim sonrası olumlu yönde değiştiğini göstermektedir.

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