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5E Öğrenme Modeline Uygun Öğretim Materyallerinin Öğretmen Adaylarının Zihinsel Modellerine Etkisi

Effects on Mental Models of Prospective Teachers of Teaching Materials Based on 5E Learning Model

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Problem Statement: Physical sciences are hard to learn due to foreign and concrete concepts it covers. There are many concepts in physical sciences which are hard to learn and teach. Diffusion and osmosis are among these (Tekkaya, Çapa and Yılmaz, 2000; Artun, 2009; Artun and Coştu, 2013). In other words, diffusion and osmosis concepts are often misunderstood, and it is difficult to teach these concepts using traditional methods (Westbrook and Marek, 1991; Odom, 1992; Odom and Barrow, 1993; Marek, Cowan and Cavallo, 1994; Zuckerman, 1994; Odom and Barrow, 1995; Kelly and Odom, 1997; Christianson and Fisher, 1999; Odom and Kelly, 2001; Tekkaya, 2003; Özmen, Şahin and Şahin, 2004; Köse, 2007). Briefly, it has been said that traditional methods are not appropriate to teach these concepts (Tekkaya and Balcı, 2003). Prospective teachers encounter many complex models during their education. Therefore, it is important to understand the mental models they possess (Vosniadou, 1994). That is because prospective teachers have difficulty drawing, comprehending and interpreting microscopic concepts (Chang, 2007). When we keep in mind mental models about events occurring at the microscopic level, this leads to ineffective learning or no learning at all (Jih and Reeves, 1992). For example; diffusion and osmosis create rather a problematic situation for prospective teachers (Yıldırım, Nakiboğlu and Sinan, 2004; Artun, 2009; Artun and Coştu, 2011; Artun and Coştu, 2013) It is the same with chemical bonds (Coll and Taylor, 2002). Thus, prospective teachers may develop alternative concepts regarding diffusion and osmosis. In order to prevent these alternative concepts that may occur in the minds of prospective teachers, their mental models must be revealed and there is a need to prevent and eradicate alternative concepts. Since prospective teachers, who will be responsible of teaching diffusion and osmosis concepts and many other concepts in relation to these, have misconceptions regarding diffusion and osmosis, this is a problem that must be resolved. If it is not dealt with, some other concepts related to diffusion and osmosis will not be taught properly as well. Hence, mental models emerging in prospective teachers' minds regarding diffusion and osmosis must be thoroughly understood and eradicated. Purpose of the Study: This paper aims at investigating the effect of materials developed in accordance with 5E learning model on mental models of prospective teachers regarding the aforementioned concepts. Method(s): In this study case study research was used. The sample consisted of 32 second year prospective teachers in the program "Science Teacher Department" at Fatih Faculty of Education in Karadeniz Technical University. The data was gathered via 5 open-ended questions. Prospective teachers' answers to open-ended questions were divided into categories. Then, the data was evaluated by taking into consideration the rubrics developed by the Chi & Roscoe (2002). In analyzing, quantitative data paired-samples t-test and ANOVA were used. Findings and Discussions: In Table 2, mean scores of the prospective teachers' responses to open-ended questions were varied in pre-test. Mean range for the pre-test changed between 2 and 16. Items 1 and 2 means were 73, item 3 was 63, item 4 was 60 and item 5 was 47, and also total means was 316. In table 4, mean scores of the prospective teachers' responses to open-ended questions were varied in the post-test. Mean range for the post-test changed between 3 and 25. Item 1 was 97, item 2 was 90, item 3 was 85, item 4 was 101 and item 5 was 100, and also total means was 473. In table 6, mean scores of the prospective teachers' responses to open-ended questions were varied in the delayed test. Mean range for the delayed test changed between 7 and 25. Items 1 and 2 were 114, item 3 was 118, item 4 was 109 and item 5 was 103, and total means was 558. In table 8, there was a significant difference between pre-test and post- test means scores in favor of post-test (t(31)= -4,37, p<0.05). In table 9, multiple comparison results of the pre-, post- and delayed test scores showed that there was statistically significant differences (F(2; 95 ) = 20,06, p<0.05). Conclusions and Recommendations: According to answers given by prospective teachers to open ended questions in the pre-test, they received low scores due to intangibility of these concepts and they failed in abstract thinking (See Table 2). However, they received higher scores in the post-test after the materials were implemented (See Table 4). It is possible to say that it was a permanent result (See Table 10). The increase on behalf of post-test in mental models of prospective teachers may stem from learner centered activities. This result shows similarity with other studies, which stated that learner centered activities assist learners in learning concepts (Şimşekli, 2010; Coca, 2013). Diffusion and osmosis concepts occur at the micro level. It is probable for prospective teachers to have misconceptions regarding these concepts since they cannot see these incidents thoroughly. Teaching materials used in the study were efficient in comprehending the concepts (the activities of exploring phase) (Çalık, 2006; Orgill and Thomas, 2007; Şahin, 2010; Çalık, Okur and Taylor, 2011; Artun and Coştu, 2013). Thus, they enable prospective teachers to see these incidents which are too small to be seen through eyes, since these activities made these micro level incidents occur at macro level. Hence, it is possible to deduce that they influenced their mental models positively. Prospective teachers learned chemical concepts, such as density, via activities of exploration and extension phases (learning by doing). Thus, it is possible to say that they contributed to comprehension of the concepts accurately in their mental models. It acknowledged in the literature that prospective teachers construct concepts better in their minds since they dwell on concepts through learning by doing and personal experiences (Çalık, Kolomuç and Taylor, 2011; Hoban, Loughran and Nielsen, 2011; She, 2002, 2004). Permanency in mental models regarding the concepts may be a result of the effectiveness of the materials in teaching the concepts. This result is in line with other studies in literature in relation to creation of permanency by learner centered activities (Tsai, 1999; Çalık, 2006; Coştu, 2006). At the end of the instruction, it was seen that achievement of prospective teachers was higher. Increases in the achievement of prospective teachers in post-tests have been demonstrated by the fact that materials developed for the concepts changed the mental models prospective teachers have.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmada, öğretmen adaylarının difüzyon ve osmoz kavramları ile ilgili zihinsel modellerine 5E öğrenme modeline uygun öğretim materyallerinin etkisinin incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, çalışmada özel durum metodolojisi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın örneklemini KTÜ Fatih Eğitim Fakültesi fen bilgisi öğretmenliği ikinci sınıfta öğrenim gören toplam 32 öğretmen adayı oluşturmuştur. Çalışmada kullanılan veri toplama aracında 5 açık uçlu soru yer almaktadır. Öğretmen adaylarının açık uçlu sorulara verdikleri cevaplar kategorilere ayrılmıştır. Veriler Chi & Roscoe (2002) tarafından geliştirilen rubrik yardımı ile değerlendirilmiştir. Verilerin analizinde, bağımlı t-testi ve tek yönlü varyans analizi kullanılmıştır. Bulgulara göre, öğretmen adaylarının ön, son ve gecikmiş test puanlarının çoklu karşılaştırmaları arasında son ve gecikmiş test lehine istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farkın olduğu görülmektedir (p<0.05). Elde edilen nicel sonuçlar, difüzyon ve osmoz kavramlarına yönelik geliştirilen öğretim materyallerinin adayların zihinsel modellerinde olumlu yönde değişiklikler meydana getirdiğini ve kavramların zihinde kalıcı olmasını sağladığını göstermektedir. Fen bilimlerinin soyut kavramlar içermesinden dolayı, soyut kavramların öğretiminde günlük yaşamla ilgili örneklerin verilerek zihinsel modellerinin olumlu yönde değişmesi sağlanabilir.

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