Buradasınız

Orta Asya Kırsal Kesiminden Başka Ülkelere Çalışmaya Giden İşçilerin Gönderdiği Paraların Verimli Alanlara Yönlendirilmesinde Rol Alan Değişkenler

Determinants of Productive Investment through Migrants' Remittances in Rural Central Asia

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (2. Language): 
This article, which is based on original data and field work, presents a comparative study of the remittance earnings and the developmental impacts on the sending regions of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan in light of rational and social institutionalism. Relatively less productive investments were seen associated with remittances, and there were a large share of consumptive investments out of remittances in both cases. I contend that path dependent social environment plays a greater role in potential migrants’ decision‐making and potential developmental outcomes than dominant theories suggest. Thus, while designing new state institutions reformers should take into consideration stubborn legacy of the Soviet era policies and their shadow in the minds and behaviors of individuals as well as social and political institutions.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Saha araştırmasına dayalı ve orjinal veriler ile desteklenen bu çalışmada işçi havalelerinin Orta Asya ülkelerinin kalkınmasına olan etkileri araştırılmaktadır. Kırgızistan ve Özbekistan’ı karşılaştırmalı olarak inceleyen bu çalışmada, işçi havalelerinin doğrudan verimli yatırımlara değil de tüketimsel yanı ağır basan yatırımlara kanalize edildiği görülmüştür. Bu iktisadi durum, Sovyetler Birliği döneminde izlenen makro politikaların, ve zaman içinde oturmuş sosyal ve siyasi kurumların, mikro bazda pek çok ekonomik tercihleri ve davranışları hala etkiledikleri; kolay kolay ortadan kaybolmadıkları ve kaybolmayacakları görülmektedir. Bunun için, siyasi reformlar hazırlanırken bu durumun gözönünde bulundurulması, dikkatli ve titizlikle formüle edilecek reform tasarılarının büyük bir sabırla takip edilmesi tavsiye edilmektedir.

REFERENCES

References: 

Abazov, R., (2007), Culture and Customs of the Central Asian Republics, Westport,
CT: Greenwood Press.
Aidis, R and F. Welter, (2008), Introduction in Ruta Aidis and Friederike Welter
Eds. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Successful Start‐ups and Business in
Emerging Economies, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Bloom, D.E., D. Canning, and J. Sevilla, (2003), The Demographic Dividend: a New
Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change, Santa Monica:
Rand.
Castles, S. and M. J. Miller, (2009), The Age of Migration: International Population
Movements in the Modern World, 4th (Revised and Updated) Edition, New York:
The Guilford Press.
Cohen, J.H., (2005), “Remittance Outcomes and Migration: Theoretical Contests,
Real Opportunities,” Studies in Comparative International Development, 40(1),
88‐112.
Cummings, S. and Ole Norgaard (2004), “Conceptualising State Capacity:
Comparing Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan,” Political Studies, 52, 685‐708.
Dienes, L. (1987), Soviet Asia: Economic Development and National Policy Choices,
Boulder: Westview Press.
DiMaggio, P.J. and W.W. Powell (1991), "Introduction;" in W. W. Powell and P. J.
DiMaggio Eds., The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis, Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.
EPI (Economic Policy Institute) (2005), “Assessment of Workers’ Remittances from
Abroad,” Bishkek.
Ellerman, D. (2003), “Policy Research on Migration and Development,”
Washington DC: The World Bank.
Feige, E.L. (1997), “Underground Activity and Institutional Change: Productive,
Protective, and Predatory Behavior in Transition Economies,” in Joan M. Nelson et
al Eds. “Transforming Post‐Communist Political Economies,” Washington DC:
National Academy Press.
Fernando, N. and Roger Thomas Moyes (2006), “Introduction, in Mario B.
Lamberte et al Eds., “Beyond Microfinance: Building Inclusive Rural Financial
Markets in Central Asia,” Philippines: Asian Development Bank.
GCIM (Global Commission on International Migration) (2005), “Migration in the
Countries of the Former Soviet Union,” Paper prepared for the Policy Analysis and
Research Programme of the GCIM by Valery Tishkov, Zhanna Zayinchkovskaya,
and Galina Vitkovskaya.
Greenberg, I. (2007), “Central Asians Chase Jobs, and Endure Exploitation,” The
New York Times, May 15, 2007, A3.
De Haas, H. (2007), “Remittances, Migration and Social Development: A
Conceptual Review of the Literature,” United Nations Research Institute for Social
Development, Programme Paper, 34.
De Haas, H. (2006), “Migration, Remittances and Regional Development in
Southern Morocco,” Geoforum, 37, 565–580.
De Haas, H. (2005), “International Migration, Remittances and Development:
Myths and Facts.” Third World Quarterly, 26(8), 1269‐1284.
Harmstone, T. R. (1991), Foreword, in William Fierman Ed. Soviet Central Asia: The
Failed Transformation, Boulder: Westview Press.
Hugo, G. (2005), “The New International Migration in Asia: Challenges for
Population Research,” Asian Population Studies, 1(1), 93‐120.
IWPR (Institute for War and Peace) (2007), Reporting Central Asia No: 499, “Uzbek
Government Concerned at Migration,” Accessed through Internet at September
15, 2007 available at the Institute’s website at
http://www.mail‐archive.com/reporting_central_asia_english@iwpr.gn.apc.org
Jones, R. C. (1998), “Introduction: The Renewed Role of Remittances in the New
World Order,” Economic Geography, 74(1), 1‐7.
Jones‐Luong, P. (2004), “Political Obstacles to Economic Reform in Uzbekistan, the
Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan: Strategies for Moving Ahead,” in Clinton R. Shiells
and Sarosh Sattar Eds. The Low‐Income Countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States: Progress and Challenges in Transition, Washington DC: IMF
and World Bank.
Korobkov, A.V. (2007), “Migration Trends in Central Eurasia: Politics versus
Economics.” Communist and Post‐Communist Studies, 40, 169‐189.
Kudabaev, Z. (2007), “Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in the Kyrgyz
Republic,” Lecture at the American University of Central Asia, November 8,
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
Lamberte, M. and R. Vogel, (2006), “Rural Finance in Central Asia: Emergence and
Challenges,” in Mario B. Lamberte et al Eds., “Beyond Microfinance: Building
Inclusive Rural Financial Markets in Central Asia,” Philippines: Asian Development
Bank.
Laruelle, M. (2007), “Central Asian Labor Migrants in Russia: The ‘Diasporization’
of the Central Asian States?” China and Eurasia Forum Quarterly 5(3), 101‐119.
Leguizamon, F.A. (1991), “The Small Business Sector in Central America: A
Diagnosis, in Sergio Diaz‐Briquets and Sidney Weintraub Eds. Emigration,
Remittances, and Small Business Development: Mexico and Caribbean Basin
Countries”, Boulder: Westview Press.
Lubin, N. (1984), Labour and Nationality in Soviet Central Asia: An Uneasy
Compromise, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Lucas, R. (2007), “International Migration and Economic Development in Low‐
Income Countries: Lessons from Recent Data,” in Susan Pozo Ed. Immigrants and
Their International Money Flows, Michigan: Upjohn Institute for Employment
Research.
Lucas, R. (2005), International Migration and Development: Lessons from Low‐
Income Countries, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Maimbo, S. and D. Ratha, (2005), Remittances: An Overview in Samuel Munzele
Maimbo and Dilip Ratha Eds., Remittances: Development Impact and Future
Prospects, Washington DC: The World Bank.
Maksakova, L. (2006), “Feminization of Labour Migration in Uzbekistan,” in Roger
Rodriguez Rios Ed. Migration Perspectives Eastern Europe and Central Asia:
Planning and Managing Labour Migration,” Vienna: International Organization for
Migration.
Marat, E., (2009), “Labor Migration in Central Asia: Implications of the Global
Economic Crisis,” Available via the Internet at
http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/silkroadpapers
Marat, E., (2006), The State‐Crime Nexus in Central Asia: State Weakness,
Organized Crime, and Corruption in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan; Available via the
Internetat
http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/Silkroadpapers/0610EMarat.pdf
Massey, D., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, A. Pellegrino, E. Taylor. (1998),
Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the
Millennium, New York: Oxford University Press.
Murphy, R. (2006), “Domestic Migrant Remittances in China: Distribution, Channels
and Livelihoods,” IOM Migration Research Series No. 24, Geneva:
International Organization for Migration.
Nasritdinov, E. (2007), “Human Dimensions of Economic Research,” oral
presentation of research at the Social Research Center of the American University
of Central Asia at December 20, 2007.
NSC (National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic). (2005), Employment
and Unemployment: Results of the Kyrgyz Integrated Household Survey in 2003,
Bishkek: NSC of the Kyrgyz Republic.
Nyberg‐Sorensen, N. et al. (2002), “The Migration‐Development Nexus: Evidence
and Policy Options.” IOM Migration Research Series No. 8, Geneva: International
Organization for Migration.
Papademetriou, D.G., and P.L., Martin. (1991), The Unsettled Relationship: Labor
Migration and Economic Development. Westport CT: Greenwood Press
Pomfret, R. (2004), “Structural Reform in the CIS‐7 Countries,” in Clinton R. Shiells
and Sarosh Sattar Eds. The Low‐Income Countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States: Progress and Challenges in Transition, Washington DC: IMF
and World Bank.
Portes, A. (1995), The Economic Sociology of Immigration: Essays on Networks,
Ethnicity, and Entrepreneurship, New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Rubinov, I. (2010), “Migration, Development, and the ‘Toi Economy’: Cultural
Integration of Remittances in Northern Kyrgyzstan,” Unpublished Research Paper,
Accessed through Internet at October 13, 2010 available at the Social Research
Center of the American University of Central Asia website at
http://src.auca.kg/images/stories/files/Igor_Rubinov_eng.pdf
Rumer, B. (1996), Preface, xi‐xvii, in Boris Rumer Ed. Central Asia in Transition:
Dilemmas of Political and Economic Development, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Rumer, B. (1989), Soviet Central Asia: A Tragic Experiment, Boston: Unwin Hyman.
Sadovskaia, E. (2006). “Labor Migrant Remittances and Their Role in the Migrant
Households of Central Asian Countries,” Central Asia and Caucasus, 30, 109‐123.
Sadovskaia, E. (2005). “Labour Migration and Its Impact on Social Stability in
Central Asia” in Irina Morozova eds., Towards Social Stability and Democratic
Governance in Central Eurasia: Challenges to Regional Security, Leiden, the
Netherlands: International Institute for Asian Studies, IOS Press.
Singer, D.A. (2010). “Migrant Remittances and Exchange Rate Regimes in the
Developing World,” American Political Science Review, 104(2), 307‐323.
Skeldon, R. (2008). “International Migration as a Tool in Development Policy: A
Passing Phase?” Population and Development Review 34(1), 1‐18.
Spector, R.A. (2006). “Who Governs the Marketplace? The Politics of Bazaars in
Kyrgyzstan,”
http://ipp.kg/en/analysis/341, (Erişim: 13.01.2009).
Stark, O. (1991). The Migration of Labor, Cambridge: Blackwell.
Stark, O. and D.E. Bloom, (1985). “The New Economics of Labour Migration,” The
American Economic Review, 75(2), 173‐178.
Taylor, E., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, D. Massey, A. Pellegrino. (1996a),
“International Migration and National Development,” Population Index 62(2):
181‐212.
Taylor, E., J. Arango, G. Hugo, A. Kouaouci, D. Massey, A. Pellegrino. (1996b),
“International Migration and Community Development,” Population Index 62(3):
397‐418.
Taylor, E. (1999), “The New Economics of Labor Migration and the Role of
Remittances in the Migration Process,” International Migration 37(1), 63‐88.
Toralieva, G. (2006). “Labor Migration: A Lost Population?” Accessed through
Internet at http://www.ipp.kg/en/analysis/202/, (Erişim: 03.11.2007).
United Nations (2003). Common Country Assessment, Bishkek, the UN System in
the Kyrgyz Republic.
UNDP (United Nations Development Program) (2005). Human Development
Report: Uzbekistan.
UNDP (United Nations Development Program) (2003). Poverty Reduction Program,
“Changes in Target Villages,” Bishkek: Kyrgyzstan.
Vandycke, N. (2004). “Economic Development and Private Sector Growth in the
CIS‐7 Countries: Challenges and Policy Implications,” pp 237‐256, in Clinton R.
Shiells and Sarosh Sattar Eds. The Low‐Income Countries of the Commonwealth of
Independent States: Progress and Challenges in Transition, Washington DC: IMF
and World Bank.
WB (World Bank) (2010). “Outlook for Remittance Flows 2010‐11” Migration and
Development Brief No 12., Washington DC: The World Bank.
WB (World Bank) (2009). “Migration and Remittances Trends 2009” Migration and
Development Brief No. 11. Washington DC: The World Bank.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com