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Bitki Biyoteknolojisinde Moleküler Markörler

Molecular Markers in Plant Biotechnology

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Abstract (2. Language): 
At present, biotechnology is one of scientific fields that is the most popular and open to latest advances. Plant biotechnology is one of these fields and molecular marker technologies used in this area appears to be an important biotechnological tool. With molecular marker, any gene in the genome or gene region related with any piece of DNA is represented. After the discovery of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a large number of molecular marker techniques which are commonly used have been developed such as Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR), Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP), Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR). These marker technologies are used effectively in many fields such as physical mapping, gene discovery and tagging, phylogenetic studies, evolutionary genetic and genetic diversity studies. As a result, molecular markers have brought expansive dimensions in plant biotechnology studies, enabling to get more efficient and rapid scientific results. In this study, general principles, advantages-disadvantages and application areas of molecular marker technologies used in biotechnology are discussed.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Biyoteknoloji, günümüzde en popüler ve yeniliklere açık bilimsel alanların başında gelmektedir. Bitki biyoteknolojisi de bu alanlardan biridir ve bu alanda kullanılan moleküler markör teknolojileri çok önemli bir biyoteknolojik araç olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Moleküler markör ile genomda herhangi bir gen bölgesi ya da gen bölgesi ile ilgili DNA parçası temsil edilmektedir. Polimer Zincir Reaksiyonunun (PCR) keşfinden sonra Çoğaltılmış Parça Uzunluk Polimorfizm (AFLP), Basit Dizi Tekrarları (SSR), Dizi İlişkili Çoğaltılmış Polimorfizm (SRAP), Tek Nükleotid Polimorfizmi (SNP) ve Basit Tekrarlı Diziler Arası Polimorfizm (ISSR) gibi yaygın olarak kullanılan çok sayıda moleküler markör teknikleri geliştirilmiştir. Bu markör teknolojileri fiziksel haritalama, gen keşfi ve etiketleme, filogenetik çalışmalar, evrimsel genetik ve genetik çeşitlilik çalışmaları gibi pek çok alanda etkin şekilde kullanılmaktadırlar. Sonuç olarak, moleküler markörler bitki biyoteknolojisi çalışmalarına çok önemli boyutlar kazandırmış, daha etkili ve hızlı bilimsel sonuçların alınmasına imkân sağlamıştır. Bu çalışmada, bitki biyoteknolojisinde kullanılan moleküler markör teknolojilerinin genel prensipleri, avantajları-dezavantajları ve uygulama alanlarından bahsedilmiştir.

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