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İKTİSADİ BÜYÜMEDE GİRİŞİMCİLİĞİN ROLÜ

ROLE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ECONOMIC GROWTH

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Entrepreneurship is the manifest ability and willingness of individuals to recognize and create new economic opportunities and to use factors of production efficiently in order to make profit in the face of risk and other obstacles. It has not attracted much attention as a determinant of economic growth in mainstream growth theories. Neo-Classical Growth Theory introduces economic growth as accumulation of other factors of production with exogenous technological change. Other mainstream approach, endogenous growth theory focuses on human capital formation and innovation but this theory does not explain the sources of human capital and innovation which are intermediate variables between entrepreneurship and economic growth. Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Revolution and decreasing importance of large corporations by the end of twentieth century makes the entrepreneurship more important than it has ever been. The global economic structure has been shifting from a economies of scale and mass production oriented managed economy to a knowledge based entrepreneurial economy. The objectives of this article are to compare managed economy and entrepreneurial economy structures; introduce existing measurement or proxies of entrepreneurship and show the causation between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth based on measures.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Girişimcilik, bireylerin yeni iktisadi kâr fırsatlarını görme, ortaya çıkarma ve kâr güdüsüyle riski ve olası engelleri göze alarak diğer üretim faktörlerini etkin bir şekilde kullanma kabiliyeti ve isteğidir. Girişimcilik ana akım büyüme modellerinde iktisadi büyümeyi etkileyen bir etken olarak gerekli ilgiyi görmemiştir. Neo-Klasik Büyüme Modeli iktisadi büyümeyi dışsal teknolojik gelişme altında diğer üretim faktörlerinin birikimi olarak sunmuştur. Diğer bir ana akım yaklaşımı olan İçsel Büyüme Modeli ise beşeri sermaye oluşumuna ve inovasyona odaklanmış, fakat girişimcilik ve iktisadi büyüme arasında ara değişken olan beşeri sermaye ve inovasyonun nedenlerini açıklamamıştır. Yirminci yüzyılın sonu itibariyle Bilgi İletişim Teknolojileri (BİT) devrimi ve büyük firmaların azalan önemiyle birlikte girişimcilik daha önce olmadığı kadar önemli hale gelmiştir. Küresel iktisadi yapı ölçek ekonomilerine ve kitle üretime dayanan yönetilen ekonomiden bilgi temelli girişimcilik ekonomisine doğru dönüşmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, yönetilen ekonomi ile girişimci ekonomi yapılarını karşılaştırmak, girişimciliği ölçmede kullanılan mevcut yöntemleri ve göstergeleri tanıtmak ve bu göstergelere göre girişimcilik faaliyeti ile iktisadi büyüme arasındaki nedenselliği ortaya koymaktır.

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