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Sömürge Devletlerinin Kullandığı Sömürgecilik Araç ve Metotları Vaka Analizi: Belçika Krallığı’nın Kongo’daki Sömürge Dönemi

Colonial Tools and Methodology Used by Colonial States A Case Study: Belgian Colonial Period in Congo

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Abstract (2. Language): 
During the second half of the XIX century, when Germany built its unity under the leadership of Bismarck, European powers shared the African Continent at the Berlin Conference in 1885. As a shareholder, Belgium had controlled Congo, which was almost eighty times bigger than itself, for along time, thanks to the colonial tools and methods. Belgium’s administration in Congo stands as a case study for colonization applied in all over the Africa during the XIX and XX centuries. Western Countries who claimed that they were in Africa for the sake of civilization, ended up transporting the resources of Africa for more than one century and conducted a severe policy which has had impacts lasting up to today by imposing western languages and religion on Africans. It has been focused on following basics: as colonial tools “language” and “religion”, as colonial methods “mission”, term of “civilization”, “social” and “work order” in colonies, “education system” and the means of “transporting the colonies’ resources”. In this research, it has been noted that European Colonial Powers entered African countries with the motto “civilization”, but changed the language and religion of the Africans via mainly missions, enforced their power with the help of the social class and education system set in colonies, transported the natural resources of colonies and improved their own wealth. In this paper, it is concluded that while colonialism ended, the same tools and methods are continued to be used under the theoretical name of “neo-colonialism”.
Abstract (Original Language): 
XIX’uncu yüzyılın ikinci yar›s›nda, Almanya’nın Bismarck liderliğinde birlik ve beraberliğini sağladığı dönemde, Avrupalı devletler Berlin Konferansı’nda Afrika kıtasını sömürge haline getirip paylaşmışlardır. Genç bir ülke olan Belçika hissedarlardan birisidir. Belçika kendisinden yaklaşık seksen kat daha büyük bir devlet olan Kongo’yu, kullandığı sömürgecilik araç ve yöntemleri sayesinde uzun süre yönetmiştir. Kongo’daki Belçika idaresi XIX ve XX yy.larda tüm Afrika’da uygulanmış olan sömürge yönetimleri için fikir veren bir uygulama olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Batı ülkelerinin Afrika’ya medeniyet getirme amacı ile girmelerine rağmen, yaklaşık bir asırlık süre içerisinde kendi dil ve dinlerini dayattıkları, Afrika’nın kaynaklarını batı ya taşıdıkları ancak medeniyet adına uzantıları günümüze kadar gelen pek çok soru işareti bırakacak uygulamalarda bulundukları gözlemlenmektedir. Sömürgecilik aracı olarak “dil” ve “din”in kullanımı, bu iki temel sömürgecilik aracı ile birlikte temel metotlar olarak “misyonerlik”, “medenilefltirme” kavram›n›n kullanılışı, sömürge devletlerinde kurulan “sosyal düzen”, “iş gruplar›”, “eğitim sistemi” ve ekonomik kaynakların transferi için oluşturulan “taşıma sistemi” üzerinde durulmuştur. Çalışmada, Avrupalı sömürge devletlerinin medeniyet getirme adına Afrika’ya girdikleri, önce Afrikalıların dil ve dinlerini değiştirdikleri, bu işlemi de misyonerleri kullanarak gerçekleştirdikleri ve sömürge ülkelerinde kurdukları eğitim sistemi ve yerel sosyal sınıflarla sömürgeci otoritelerini güçlendirdikleri ve sömürge ülkelerinin ekonomik kaynaklarını kendi ülkelerine taşıyarak refah düzeylerini artırdı kları, bu uğurda bazen işkenceye varan metotlar uyguladıkları bulgularına ulaşılmıştır. Sömürgecilik klasik anlamda sona ermesine rağmen “yeni sömürgecilik” anlayışı altında aynı araç ve metotların halen kullanılmaya devam edildiği sonucuna varılmıştır.

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