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La gestión del talento: Líneas de trabajo y procesos clave

Talent Management: Working lines and key processes

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DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/ic.518

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Purpose: Talent management represents today a challenge for companies, since the contribution of value comes increasingly from the area of intangible capital. The current paradigm of expanding technology and competitive dynamics, makes talent management that companies realize a critical success factor in today's markets. However, there is no generally accepted theoretical framework and empirical studies sufficient to demonstrate the role of talent management in creating competitive advantage. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to analyze the evolution of talent management, to understand more deeply their fundamental dimensions: people and key positions in the organization. From these dimensions, as a second objective of the research is proposed to classify and characterize the literature about four alternative ways of study, according to the treatment they receive such dimensions and thus improve understanding of the role of talent management in business strategy. Design/methodology: To develop this paper we have selected the major contributions to the field of talent management, with particular emphasis on certain meta-analysis very quoted by the scientific community (Lewis & Heckman, 2006; Collings & Mellahi, 2009; Tarique & Schuler, 2010). In addition we have select additional papers published in high impact journals seen in ABI/Inform, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and EBSCO (Business Source Complete), through the keywords "Gestión del Talento", "Plan de Gestión del Talento" and "Modelo de Gestión de Talento" and its English equivalent "Talent Management", "Talent Management Plans/Systems" and "Talent Management Framework/Model". Findings: From this review, we extracted the existence of different ways of understanding and talent management apply in organizations and even different understandings of what is talent itself. For this, we describe the basic dimensions of talent management (people and key positions) and four alternative ways are established talent management as the treatment of these dimensions. Furthermore, we conclude that any talent plan includes processes or phases: attraction, selection, identification, development and retention. Originality/value: Unlike other proposals, we consider it necessary to incorporate an additional referral study around key positions in the organization. Thus, characterization and cataloging of the previous literature is provided, as well as comparative analysis of heterogeneous definitions of talent and talent management. Furthermore, we propose that talent management is not just a tool for the implementation of the strategy, but it is situate since the start of the strategic process, that is, from strategic formulation. Thus, we focus on the approach advocated from the third line of study.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Objeto: La gestión del talento supone hoy en día un reto para las empresas, toda vez que la aportación de valor se produce cada vez más desde el área del capital intangible. El paradigma actual de expansión de la tecnología y dinamismo competitivo, hace de la gestión del talento que las compañías realizan, un factor crítico del éxito en los actuales mercados. Sin embargo, no existe un marco teórico de general aceptación ni estudios empíricos que demuestren suficientemente el papel de la gestión del talento en la creación de ventajas competitivas. Por ello, el primer objetivo de este trabajo es el análisis de la evolución de la gestión del talento, para comprender con mayor detalle sus dimensiones fundamentales: personas y puestos clave de la organización. A partir de estas dimensiones, como segundo objetivo de la investigación, se proponer clasificar y caracterizar la literatura alrededor de cuatro vías alternativas de estudio, según el tratamiento que reciban tales dimensiones y, por tanto, mejorar la comprensión del papel de la gestión del talento en la estrategia empresarial. Diseño/metodología/enfoque: Para el desarrollo del trabajo se han seleccionado las principales contribuciones al campo de la gestión del talento, destacando especialmente ciertos metanálisis de gran reconocimiento entre la comunidad científica (Lewis & Heckman, 2006; Collings & Mellahi, 2009; Tarique & Schuler, 2010). Además, se han seleccionado trabajos adicionales publicados en revistas de impacto incluidas en ABI/Inform, Science Direct, SCOPUS y EBSCO (Business Source Complete), a través de las palabras clave “Gestión de talento”, “Plan de gestión de talento”, “Modelo de gestión de talento”, y sus equivalentes en inglés “Talent management” “Talent Management plans/systems” y “Talent management frame/model”.Aportaciones y resultados: De la revisión mencionada, se extrae la existencia de diferentes formas de entender la gestión de talento y de aplicarla en las organizaciones e, incluso, diferentes formas de entender lo que es el talento en sí mismo. Para ello, se describen las dimensiones básicas de la gestión del talento (personas y puestos clave) y se establecen cuatro vías alternativas de gestión de talento, según el tratamiento de dichas dimensiones. Además, concluimos que todo plan de talento comprende los procesos o fases de: atracción, selección, identificación, desarrollo y retención. Originalidad / Valor añadido: A diferencia de otras propuestas, consideramos necesario incorporar una vía de estudio adicional en torno a las posiciones o puestos clave de la organización. De este modo, se facilita la caracterización y catalogación de la literatura previa, así como el análisis comparado de las heterogéneas definiciones sobre talento y gestión de talento. Además, proponemos que la gestión del talento no solo es un instrumento al servicio de la implantación o puesta en marcha de la estrategia, sino que cabe situarla desde el inicio del proceso estratégico, esto es, desde la formulación estratégica. De este modo, apostamos por el planteamiento defendido desde la tercera vía de estudio, tal y como se describirá en el trabajo.

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