Contingent workforce, organisational commitment and job satisfaction: Review, discussion and research agenda

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (Original Language): 
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse the existing theoretical frameworks of organisational behaviour and job satisfaction while taking into account, in connection with working conditions, the social and economic changes that are taking place in most of the western countries. The analysis and discussion suggest the need for new lines of research to determine whether the current practices carried out in human resources departments are well directed. Design/methodology/approach: First, we show a short review of the classical literature and the predominant paradigms through an exhaustive review of the scientific literature that has led to their subsequent evolution. Afterwards, we analyse the evidence sustaining their evolution in the light of the current changes, and we explain the future research needs from a theoretical point of view. Findings: The identification of the worker with the organization and their perception of job satisfaction are the key variable to adaptation and retention, by the organizations. This article analyzes current theories of organizational commitment and job satisfaction, highlighting the need to adapt to social and economic changes that are occurring. The identification and adoption of these key factors by the organization is essential to carry out adequate human resources policy. Research limitations/implications: Owing to the nature of the article, it is a theoretical essay to launch a new scientific debate in connection with the models displayed and fully justified. Practical implications depend on the development of future research, as justified at all times. Originality/value: Currently, few investigations and theoretical contributions have taken into account the increase in contingent work, and more specifically moonlighting, either from an empirical perspective or as a theoretical critique of the existing organisational behaviour models. The main value of this essay is its invitation to take control of the debate while analysing its possible practical implications.

JEL Codes:



ALLEN, N.J.; MEYER, J.P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance,
and normative commitment to the organisation. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63:
1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8325.1990.tb00506.x
BECKER, H.S. (1960). Notes on the concept of commitment. American Journal of Sociology,
66(1): 32-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/222820
BERGMAN, M.E. (2006). The relationship between affective and normative commitment:
review and research agenda. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 27: 645-663.
BLUEDORN, A.C. (1982). The Theories of turnover: Causes, effects and meaning. Research in
the Sociology of Organizations, 1: 75-128.
CONNELLY, C.E.; GALLAGHER, D.G. (2004). Emerging trends in contingent work research.
Journal of Management, 30(6): 959-983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jm.2004.06.008
CURRIVAN, D.B. (1999). The causal order of job satisfaction and organisational commitment in
models of employee turnover. Human Resource Management Review, 9: 195-524.
DE FRUTOS, B.; RUIZ, M.A.; SAN MARTÍN, R. (1998). Análisis factorial confirmatorio de las
dimensiones del compromiso con la organización. Psicológica, 19: 345-366.
DELLO RUSSO, S.; VECCHIONE, M.; BORGOGNI, L. (2013). Commitment profiles, job
satisfaction, and behavioural outcomes. Applied Psychology, 62(4): 701-719.
ENACHE, M.; SIMÓ, P.; SALLÁN, J.M.; FERNÁNDEZ, V. (2011). Examining the impact of protean
and boundary less career attitudes upon subjective career success. Journal of Management
& Organisation, 17(4): 460-474. http://dx.doi.org/10.5172/jmo.2011.17.4.459
FELDMAN, D.C. (1990). Reconceptualising the nature and consequences of part-time work.
Academy of Management Review, 15(1): 103-112.
HREBINIA, L.G.; ALUTTO, J.A. (1972). Personal and role-related factors in development of
organisational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(4): 555-573.
IVERSON, R.D. (1992). Employee intent to stay: An empirical test of a revision of the Price
and Mueller model. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa (unpublished doctoral
JAMAL, M.; BABA, V. V.; RIVIÈRE, R. (1998). Job stress and well-being of moonlighters: The
perspective of deprivation or aspiration revisited. Stress Medicine, 14: 195–202.
JUDGE, T.A.; LARSEN, R.J. (2001). Dispositional affect and job satisfaction: A review and
theoretical extension. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 86: 67–98.
KALLEBERG, A.L. (1977). Work values and job rewards: A theory of job satisfaction. American
Sociological Review 42: 124-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2117735
KO, J-W.; PRICE, J.L.; MUELLER, C.W. (1997). Assessment of Meyer and Allen’s Three-
Component Model of organisational commitment in South Korea. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 82: 961–973. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.82.6.961
LINCOLN, J.R.; KALLEBERG, A.L. (1990). Culture, control and commitment: A study of work
organisation and work orientations in the United States and Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
LINCOLN, J.R.; KALLEBERG, A.L. (1985). Work organisation and workforce commitment – A
study of plants and employees in the United-States and Japan. American Sociological
Review, 6: 738-760. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095502
LOCKE, E.A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. En M. D. Dunnette (Ed.),
Handbook of industrial and organisational psychology (pages 1297-1349). Chicago: Rand-
LOWLER, E.J. (1992). Affective attachments to nested groups: a choice-process theory.
American Sociological Review, 57: 327-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096239
MARTIN, J.E.; SINCLAIR, R.R. (2007). A typology of the part-time workforce: Differences on
job attitudes and turnover. Journal of Occupational Organisational Psychology, 80: 301-319.
MAYNARD, D.C.; JOSEPH, T.A. (2006). Are all part-time underemployed? The influence of
faculty status preference on satisfaction and commitment. High Educ, 55: 139-154.
MCGEE, G.W.; FORD, R.C. (1987). Two (or more?) dimensions of organisational commitment:
Re-examination of the affective and continuance commitment scales. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 72: 638–642. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.4.638
MEYER, J.P.; ALLEN, N.J. (1984). Testing the Side-Bet theory of organisational commitment-
Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(3): 372-378.
MEYER, J.P.; ALLEN, J.A. (1991). A three component conceptualization of organisational
commitment. Human Source Management Review, 1: 61-89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1053-
MEYER, J.P.; BECKER, T.E.; VANDERBERGHE, C. (2004). Employee commitment and
motivation: a conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89:
991-1007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.991
MEYER, J.P.; HERSCOVITCH, L. (2001). Commitment in the workplace. Toward a general
model. Human Resource Management Review, 11: 299-326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1053-
Continuance, and normative Commitment to the Organisation: A Meta-analysis of
Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 61: 20-52.
MOWDAY, R.T.; PORTER, L.W.; STEERS, R.M. (1982). Employee-organisation linkages: The
psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: Academic Press.
MOWDAY, R.T.; STEERS, R.M. (1979). The Measurement of organisational commitment.
Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 14: 224-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791(79)90072-1
MUELLER, C.W.; BOYER, E.M.; PRICE, J.L.; IVERSON, R.D. (1994). Employee attachment and
noncoercive conditions of work: The case of dental hygienists. Work and Occupations, 21:
179-212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0730888494021002002
PORTER, L.W.; STEERS, R.M.; MOWDAY, R.T.; BOULIAN, P.V. (1974). Organisational
commitment, job-satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 59(5): 603-609. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037335
POWELL, D.M.; MEYER, J.P. (2004). Side-bet theory and the three component model of
organisational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 65: 157–177.
RITZER, G.; TRICE, H.M. (1969). An empirical study of Howard Becker’s side-bet theory. Social
Forces, 47: 475–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2574537
SCHAUBROECK, J.; JUDGE, T.A.; TAYLOR III, L.A. (1998). Influences of trait negative affect
and situational similarity on correlation and convergence of work attitudes and job stress
perceptions across two jobs. Journal of Management, 24: 553–576.
SIMO, P.; ENACHE, M.; FERNANDEZ, V.; SALLÁN, J.M. (2010). Career profiles and
organisational commitment: Analyzing necessary and sufficient conditions. Dirección y
Organización, 41:18-34.
SIMO, P; SALLÁN, J.M.; FERNANDEZ, V. (2008). Compromiso organizativo, satisfacción en el
trabajo e intención de abandonar la organización: Análisis comparativo entre profesorado
universitario a tiempo parcial y a tiempo completo. Archivos Analíticos de Políticas
Educativas, 16: 1-21.
SMITH, P.C.; KENDALL, L.M.; HULIN, C.L. (1969). The measurement of satisfaction in work
and retirement. Chicago: Rand McNally.
SOLINGER, O.N.; VAN OLFFEN, W.; ROE, R.A. (2008). Beyond the three-component model of
organitzacional commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 70-83.
THORSTEINSON, T.J. (2003). Job attitudes of part-time vs. full-time workers: A meta-analytic
review. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 76: 151-177.
VANDENBERG, R.J.; SELF, R.M. (1993). Assessing newcomers’ changing commitments to the
organisation during the first 6 months of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78: 557–568.
WALLACE, J.E. (1995). Corporatist control and organisational commitment among
professionals -The case of lawyers working in law firms. Social Forces, 73(3): 811-840.
WEISS, D.J.; DAWIS, R.V.; ENGLAND, G.W.; LOFQUIST, L.H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota
Satisfaction Questionnaire. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, 22. Minneapolis,
MN: University of Minnesota.
WIENER, Y. (1982). Commitment in Organizations: A normative view. Academy of Management
Review, 7(3): 418-428.
WILLIAMS, L.J.; HAZER, J.T. (1986). Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction and
Commitment in Turnover Models – a Reanalysis Using Latent Variable Structural Equation
Methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2): 219-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-
ZICKAR, M.J.; GIBBY, R.E.; JENNY, T. (2004). Job attitudes of workers with two jobs. Journal of
Vocational Behaviour, 64: 222-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00047-2

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com