Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (2. Language): 
Bu çalışma, daha önce yapılmış ve deneyimin öz-yeterlik algısını etkilediğini iddia eden çalışmaların savlarını test etmektedir. Çalışma kapsamında, katılımcıların dil öğrenme podkestlerini dinlemeleri ve ilgili görev-temelli aktiviteleri yapmaları sağlanarak, bu e-öğrenme deneyimlerinin İngilizce öz-yeterlik algısı üzerindeki muhtemel etkileri incelenmektedir. Çalışma üniversite birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin başlangıç, orta ve ileri düzeyde dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma becerileri ile ilgili öz-yeterlik algılarına yoğunlaşmaktadır. Çalışmada katılımcıların motivasyon ve beklentiler ile ilgili öz-yeterlik algıları da incelemektedir. 187 kişilik rastlantısal olmayan uygunluk örneklemine 12 haftalık podkestlerle dil öğrenme programının başında ve sonunda İngilizce Özyeterlik Algısı Ölçeğinin verildiği bu yarı-deneysel çalışma ön-test—son-test araştırma desenine sahiptir. Toplanan veriler betimsel istatistikler ve Wilcoxon işaretli sıra testi kullanılarak analiz edildi. Wilcoxon testi sonuçları katılımcıların duyduğunu anlama, konuşma ve okuma becerileri ile ilgili algılarında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark olduğunu göstermiştir. Yazma becerisi ile ilgili öz-yeterlik algısının da kayda değer biçimde geliştiği görülmüştür. Bu bulgular, yeni teknoloji-temelli uygulamaların yabancı dil öğrenmeye olumlu etkide bulunduğu görüşünü desteklemektedir. Ancak, katılımcıların ileri seviyedeki hikâyeleri okuma ve anlama ile ilgili öz-yeterlik algılarında anlamlı bir gelişme gözlenmemiştir. İleri İngilizce düzeyleri ile ilgili olarak katılımcıların öz-yeterlik algılarının olumlu yönde değişmemesi, podkestlerin ve ilgili aktivitelerin başlangıç düzeyinde olmasından ve program süresinin ileri İngilizce düzeylerine yönelik yüksek öz-yeterlik algısı için yetersiz olmasından kaynaklanmış olabilir.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Based on earlier research findings that experience affects self-efficacy perception, the present study probes into possible effects of Elearning experiences on English self-efficacy by enabling participants to listen to language learning podcasts repetitively and do related task-based activities. It focuses on first-year university students’ self-efficacy perceptions of listening, speaking, reading and writing at elementary, intermediate and advanced levels. Participants’ self-efficacy perceptions concerning motivation and expectations are also analyzed. The quasi-experimental study has a pretest-posttest research design, in which a non-random convenience sample of 187 university students were given the English Self-Efficacy Scale before and after a 12-week podcast-based language learning program. Collected data are analyzed by using descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Wilcoxon test results show that there is a statistically significant difference in participants’ perceptions of their listening comprehension, speaking, and reading skills. Self-efficacy perceptions concerning writing have improved significantly, as well. These findings support the idea that novel technology-based applications can have positive outcomes for language learning. However, participants’ selfefficacy perception concerning reading and understanding advanced level stories did not improve significantly. The finding that participants’ self-efficacy perceptions concerning advanced level of proficiency did not improve may be due to the fact that the level of the podcasts and related tasks covered by the program was elementary and that the program duration was insufficient for gaining high self-efficacy for advanced level skills in English.



Atay, D. (2007). Beginning teacher efficacy and the practicum in an EFL context, Teacher
Development, 11(2), 203 - 219.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.
Bandura, A. (1978). The self-system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33,
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy, Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 9, 75–78.
Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. In Frank Pajares and
Timuthy C. Urdan (2006). Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents. Information Age
Bandura, A. and Schunk, D.H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic
interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personal and Social
Psychology, 41, 586-598.
Bankhofer, A. (2005). Understanding the podcasting revolution. iLounge - Retrieved April
18th, 2006 from
Başaran, S. (2004). An Experimental Study of Task-based Writing Activities in Foreign
Language Learning. Unpublished MA thesis: The University of Gaziantep.
Baum, J.R. and Locke, E.A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and
motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 587–
Bausell, S. B. (2006). Pump up the pod: Popular culture and podcasting in a critical
secondary language arts course. Master of Education Thesis. University of Hawai’i.
UMI Number: 1435698.
Cebeci, Z. & Tekdal, M. (2006). Using podcasts as audio learning objects. Interdisciplinary
Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects, 2, 47-57.
Chapelle C. (2003). English language learning and technology, Philadelphia: John
Benjamins Publishing Company.
Choi, N. (2005). Self-efficacy and self-concept as predictors of college students’ academic
performance. Psychology in the Schools, 42(2), 197-205.
Chularut, P. and DeBacker, T. K. (2004). The influence of concept mapping on
achievement, self-regulation, and self-efficacy in students of English as a second
language. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(3), 248-263.
Çubukçu, F. (2008). A study on the correlation between self efficacy and foreign language
learning anxiety. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 4(1), 148-158.
Fischer, C. S. (1992). America Calling, A social history of the telephone to 1940. Berkeley:
University of California Pres.
Fischer, C. S. (1997). Technology and community: historical complexities. Sociological
Inquiry, 67, 113-18.
Gibson, C. B. (2001). Me and us: differential relationships among goal-setting training,
efficacy and effectiveness at the individual and team level. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 22, 789-808.
Goker, S. D. (2006). Impact of peer coaching on self-efficacy and instructional skills in
TEFL teacher education. System, 34, 239-254.
Graham, S. (2007). Learner strategies and self-efficacy: making the connection. Language
Learning Journal, 35(1), 81-93.
Griffin, D. K., Mitchell, D. and Thompson, S. J. (2009). Podcasting by synchronizing
PowerPoint and voice: What are the pedagogical benefits? Computers and
Education, 53, 532–539.
Hamzah, M. (2004). Facilitating second language acquisition (SLA) in a computermediated
communication (CMC) learning environment. Internet Journal of eLanguage
Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 15-30.
Hong, K. S., Lai, K. W. and Holton, D. (2003). Students' Satisfaction and Perceived
Learning with a Web-based Course. Educational Technology and Society, 6(1).
Horwitz, E. (1988). The beliefs about language learning of beginning university foreign
language students. The Modern Language Journal, 72, 283-294.
Janes, D.P. (2005). Constructivism and instructional design: An exploration using an
asynchronous online nominal group technique. Doctoral Dissertation. University of
British Columbia.
Karaway, K., Tucker, C. M., Reinke, W. M. and Hall, C. (2003). Self-efficacy, goal
orientation, and fear of failure as predictors of school engagement in high school
students. Psychology in the Schools, 40(4), 417-427.
King, K. P. (2009). Podcasting as mobile learning. IGI Global: 1644-1650.
Leaver, B. L. and Kaplan, M. (2004). Task-based instruction in US Government Slavic
language programs. In Leaver, B. L. and Willis, J. R. (Eds.) Taskbased instruction in
foreign language education: practices and programs. Washington: Georgetown
University Press.
Lee, C. and Lea, W. E. (2001). Online students’ perceived self-efficacy: Does it change?
Annual Proceedings of Selected Research and Development and Practice Papers
Presented at the National Convention of the Association for Educational
Communications and Technology, Atlanta, GA.
Lee, S. (2003). Computer Assisted Classroom Discussion in Three ESL Classrooms: A
Case Study of the Experiences of a Teacher and Her Students. Doctoral
Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin. UMI Number: 3118040.
Locke, E. A. and Latham, G. P. (2006). New directions in goal-setting theory. Current
Directions in Psychological Science, 15(5), 265-268.
Lu, J. A. (2009). Podcasting as a next generation teaching resource. IGI Global: 350-365.
Magogwe, J. M. and Oliver, R. (2007). The relationship between language learning
strategies, proficiency, age and self-efficacy beliefs: A study of language learners in
Botswana. System, 35, 338-352.
McQuillan, J. (2006). iPod in Education: The Potential for Language Acquisition. iPod in
Education White Papers, Apple Computer, Inc.
Menezes, C., & Moreira, F. (2011). M-English – Podcast: A Tool for Mobile Devices. In
Cruz-Cunha, M. M., & Moreira, F. (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Mobility and
Computing: Evolving Technologies and Ubiquitous Impacts. (pp. 250-266).
Meskill, C. and Anthony, N. (2007). Learning to orchestrate online instructional
conversations: A case of faculty development for foreign language educators.
Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20 (1), 5-19. Retrieved January 24, 2008,
from http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/09588220601118487
Mills N., Pajares F. and Herron C. (2007). Self-efficacy of College Intermediate French
Students: Relation to Achievement and Motivation. Language Learning, 57(3), 417-
442. Retrieved July 24, 2008, from ProQuest Education Journals database.
(Document ID: 1341817161).
Pachler, N. (2007). Mobile learning: Towards a Research Agenda (Ed.). WLE Centre for
Excellence, London.
Pajares, F. (1997). Current directions in self-efficacy research. In Maehr, M. and Pintrich,
P. R. (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement. 10, 1-49. Greenwich, CT: JAI
Pajares, F. and Graham, L. (1999). Self-efficacy, motivation constructs, and mathematics
performance of entering middle school students. Contemporary Educational
Psychology, 24, 124-139.
Pajares, F. and Johnson, M. J. (1996). Role of self-efficacy beliefs in the writing of high
school students: A path analysis. Psychology in the Schools, 33, 163-175.
Pajares, F., Britner, S. and Valiante, G. (2000). Relation between achievement goals and
self-beliefs of middle school students in writing and science. Contemporary
Educational Psychology, 25, 406–422.
Pajares, F., Miller, M. D. and Johnson, M. J. (1999). Gender differences in writing selfbeliefs
of elementary school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 50–
Peacock, M. (1999). Beliefs about language learning and their relationship to proficiency.
International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(2), 247-265.
Peacock, M. (2001). Pre-service ESL teachers' beliefs about second language learning: A
longitudinal study. System, 29(2), 177-195.
Peacock, M. (2001). Pre-service ESL teachers' beliefs about second language learning: A
longitudinal study. System 29(2), 177-195.
Rahemi, J. (2007). Self Efficacy in English and Iranian Senior High School Students
Majoring in Humanities. Research on Youth and Language, 1(2), 98-111. Retrieved
February 5, 2008 from http://novitasroyal.org/current.htm.
Rosell-Aguilar, F. (2007). Top of the Pods - In Search of a Podcasting “Podagogy” for
Language Learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(5), 471-492.
Retrieved January 24, 2008, from
Schunk D. H. (1985). Self-efficacy and classroom learning. Psychology in the Schools,
22(2), 208–223.
Schwoerer, C. E., May, D. R., Hollensbe, E. C. and Mencl, J. (2005). General and specific
self-efficacy in the context of a training intervention to enhance performance
expectancy. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(1), 111-129.
Shulman, M. (2001). Developing Global Connections through Computer-Mediated
Communication. The Internet TESL Journal, 7(6), 2001. Retrieved January 24,
2008, from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Shulman-CMC.html.
Sim, M. S. (2007). Beliefs and autonomy: Encouraging more responsible learning.
Research on Youth and Language, 1(2), 98-111. Retrieved February 5, 2008 from
Spicer, C. (2004). The written English self-efficacy of students with varying abilities: a
look at gifted students and students with learning disabilities. Poster session
presented at the Third International Biennial. SELF Research Conference, Berlin,
Takatalo, J., Nyman, G. and Laaksonen, L. (2008). Components of human experience in
virtual environments. Computers in Human Behaviour, 24.
Tse, L. (2000). Student perceptions of foreign language study: A qualitative analysis of
foreign language autobiographies. The Modern Language Journal, 84(1), 69-84.
Vijayalakshmi, S. (2009). Podcasting: An Effective Tool for Language Learning. In Vyas,
M. A. & Patel, Y. L. (Eds.). Teaching English as a Second Language. PHI Learning
Private Limited, New Delhi.
Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training Foreign Language Teachers. Cambridge University Press.
Wang, C. and Pape, S. J. (2007). A probe into three Chinese Boys’ self-efficacy beliefs
learning English as a second language. Journal of Research in Childhood Education,
21(4), 364-377.
Whyte, G., Saks, A. M. and Hook, S. (1997). When success breeds failure: The role of selfefficacy
in escalating commitment to a losing course of action. Journal of
Organizational Behavior, 18, 415-432.
Witherspoon, J. (2005). Building the academic eco-system: Implications of e-learning.
International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 3(3), 3-12.
Yamada, M. and Akahori, K. (2007). Social presence in synchronous CMC-based language
learning: How does it affect the productive performance and consciousness of
learning objectives? Computer Assisted Language Learning, 20(1), 37-65. Retrieved
January 24, 2008, from
Yang, S.C. and Chen, Y. (2007). Technology-enhanced language learning: A case study.
Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 860-879.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com