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Leadership Styles: A Study of Managers in Bahraini Organizations

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Leadership is considered to be a vital element in organizations today which include: vision creation, goals accomplishments, ambition, self-awareness, character and skills in tuning into others’ emotions, through the ability to establish relationships and bonds. The literature provides an insight into the topic but it focuses on research conducted in the West and particularly in the United States. Little material is available on leadership in the Gulf area. This article examines the relationship between these two concepts, within the context of national and organizational culture in Bahrain. The research covered five major organizations in Bahrain: petrochemicals, petroleum, telecommunications, shipbuilding and repair, and banking. It examined the relationship between six leadership styles (Coercive, Authoritative, Affiliation, Democratic, Pacesetting and Coaching), and components of emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social skills) identified by Goleman (2000). The research adopted a deductive approach using the Emotional Competency Inventory as well as interviews with 103 executives and managers. The research found that the six leadership styles were used by the executives. National and corporate culture influenced such leadership styles. The standardized tests used need to be adjusted to suit the culture in Bahrain. The findings of this research therefore add a new dimension (namely, national and corporate culture in the Gulf Region) to the concept of emotional intelligence.

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Zahra R Hajee, Assistant Professor - Department of Management &
Marketing, College of Business Administration- University of
Bahrain. Email: zhajibussuob@yahoo.com
Suhaila AlHashmei, Assistant Professor – Department of
Management & Marketing, College of Business Administration-University of Bahrain. Email: suhailaebrahim@yahoo.com

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