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Lider-üye etkileşimi faktörlerinin liderler ve astlar tarafından karşılıklı algılanması: Bir perakende işletmesi çalışanları üzerinde araştırma

Mutual perceptions of the leader member exchange factors by leaders and followers: A research on employees of a retail company

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Abstract (2. Language): 
There are two main purposes of this research. The first one is to analyze the reciprocity in leader member relations. Leader member exchange theory proposes a dyadic devotion between leader and members. Members who are volunteer in undertaking tasks and responsibilities exceed their standard role definitions; in exchange they get their leaders support and protection. Most of the researches dealing with leader member exchange focus on the devotion and extra role taking behavior of the members. The relations have been analyzed among fairness, performance, personality characteristics, satisfaction, commitment, teamwork and membership whether in or out-group. But researches focusing on and analyzing the strength of the dyadic relations among leaders and members are relatively few. The second purpose of this study is to analyze the main differences between in-group and out-group members. In multidimensional analyzes of the leader member exchange four dimensions has been used as affect, loyalty, contribution and professional respect in multidimensional analyzes of the leader member exchange. Within this research, the main differences among these dimensions have also been analyzed either from the perspective of leader and the members. Results reveal that there are statistically significant relationships between the perceptions of LMX leaders and members on affect, contribution, loyalty and professional respect. In mutual relationships (as dyad), individuals assessed himself in “in-group” and individuals assessed himself in “out-group” were compared by leaders and members perspectives separately. According to the t-test results there are statistically significant differences on all of the LMX perceptions (affect, contribution, loyalty, professional respect). There isn’t any statistically significant difference in the context of demographic variables.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın iki temel amacı bulunmaktadır. Bunlardan ilki lider–üye etkileşim modelinde belirtilen ilişkilerin karşılılık boyutunun analiz edilmesidir. Lider üye etkileşim modelinde karşılıklı vefakârlık söz konusudur. Üyeler liderleri için fazladan görev ve sorumluluk üstlenmeye gönüllüdürler, bunun karşılığı olarak liderler de üyelerine standart görev tanımlarının üzerinde destek verir ve onları savunur. Lider üye etkileşimi ile ilgili yapılan çalışmaların büyük bölümü üyelerin fedakârlığı açısından konuyu ele almışlardır. Üyelerin iç ya da dış grup üyesi olmaları durumunun adalet, performans, kişilik özellikleri, tatmin, bağlılık ve ekip çalışması gibi faktörlerle ilişkisi araştırılmıştır. Ancak üyeler ile lider arasındaki fedakârlığın derecesinin karşılıklı olarak analiz edildiği araştırmalar nispeten az sayıdadır. Araştırmanın ikinci amacı iç ya da dış grup üyeleri arasındaki farklılıkları analiz etmektir. Lider üye etkileşimini çok boyutlu olarak inceleyen araştırmalarda etki, katkı, vefa ve profesyonel saygı olmak üzere dört faktör kullanılmaktadır. Çalışmada bu faktörlerin hem liderin astlarına ilişkin algılamaları hem de üyelerin liderlerine ilişkin algılamaları açısından iç grup ve dış grup olmaları arasındaki farklılıkları t-testti ve Anova testi ile analiz edilmektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, liderler ve astlar arasında algılanan etki, katkı, vefakârlık ve profesyonel saygı boyutlarında istatistikî olarak anlamlı ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir. Karşılıklı ikili ilişkilerinde lider ve astlar açısından ayrı ayrı olmak üzere, kendisini iç grup üyesi olarak değerleyenlerle dış grup üyesi olarak değerleyenler karşılaştırılmıştır. T-testi sonuçlarına göre, algılanan lider üye etkileşiminin tüm (etki, katkı, vefakârlık, profesyonel saygı) boyutlarında anlamlı farklılıklar olduğu belirlenmiştir. Demografik değişkenler bağlamında LÜE’nin hiç bir boyutunda istatistikî olarak anlamlı bir farklılık tespit edilememiştir.

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