Between Compassionateness and Assertiveness: A Trust Matrix for Leaders

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
Purpose: Construct the structure of trust-building perceived by principals in Portuguese public schools. Design/methodology/approach: A grounded theory approach applied to a survey of open questions answered by school’s principals. Findings: (1) self-trust is the single trait common to all respondents; (2) compassion is a striking antecedent in the process of other-trust; compassionateness and assertiveness must combine with one another to achieve leadership based on smart trust, what is outlined in a matrix model built from the data. Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of this study was the impossibility to conduct face-to-face interviews given the limitation of free time alleged by the principals. In order to solve that limitation we decide to use the grounded theory approach. Practical implications: The consideration of a symbiosis category of the behaviors of principals can trigger positive expectations among the players who until now did not understand how it is possible to bring together the best of the worlds of management and leadership in a balanced way, with efficiency in authenticity Social implications: The aforementioned dyadic model reflects a psychological state based on the belief that others do not take advantage of us, showing that trust is an essential element in positive human relations and becomes a strategic issue. Originality/value: The present study found that “pure” positive behaviors, as being compassionate, might need to be tempered or complemented with other behaviors such as assertiveness, to become really effective.



Alberti, R., & Emmons, M. (1970, 2001). Your perfect right: A guide to assertive living. San
Luis Obispo, CA: Impact Publishers.
Ames, D. (2009). Pushing up to a point: Assertiveness and effectiveness in leadership and
interpersonal dynamics. Research in Organizational Behavior, 2 9 , 1 1 1 - 1 3 3 .
Avolio, B., Gardner, W., Walumbwa, F., Luthans, F., & May, D. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A
look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors.
Leadership Quarterly, 15, 801-823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2004.09.003
Avolio, B., & Gardner, W. (2005). Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of
positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315-338.
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management – http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/jiem.1046
Batson, C.D. (2009). These things called empathy: Eight related but distinct phenomena. In J.
Decety & W. Ickes (Eds.). The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 3-15). Cambridge: MIT
press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7551/mitpress/9780262012973.003.0002
Bowen, G. (2006). Grounded Theory and sensitizing concepts. International Journal of
Qualitative Methods, 5(3): 1-9. Available at: http://www.ualberta.ca/~iiqm/backissues/5_3/PDF/bowen.pdf
Coleman, J. (1990). Foundations of Social Theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
ISBN: 978-0674312265
Covey, S.M.R., & Merrill, R. (2006). The speed of trust: The one thing that changes everything.
New York: Free Press. ISBN: 978-0-7432-9560-4
Christopher, A., Edwards, C., & Eppler, C. (2012). School based group counseling. Belmont, CA:
Brooks-Cole. ISBN: 978-0618574476
Crocker, J., & Canevello, A. (2008). Creating and undermining social support in communal
relationships: The role of compassionate and self-image goals. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 95, 555-575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.95.3.555
Deutsch, M. (1958). Trust and suspicion. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 265-279.
Dey, I. (1999). Grounding Grounded Theory: Guidelines for Qualitative Inquiry. California:
Academic Press.
Dirks, K., & Ferrin, D. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for
research and practice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 611-628.
Dwyer, F., Schurr, P., & Oh, S. (1987). Developing buyer-seller relationships. Journal of
Marketing, 51, 11-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251126
Eisenhardt, K. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management
Review. 14(4), 532-550. Available at: http://intranet.catie.ac.cr/intranet/posgrado/Met%20Cual%20Inv
Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and Creation of Prosperity. New York: The Free
Giddens, A. (1990) . Consequences of modernity. Cambridge, UK: Poltity Press.
ISBN:978-0804718911 (pbk)
Glaser, B.G., & Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Chicago: Aldine.
ISBN: 978-0202302607
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management – http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/jiem.1046
Goetz, J.L., Keltner, D., & Simon–Thomas, E. (2010). Compassion: An evolutionary analysis
and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 351–374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018807
Khodyakov, D. (2007). The Complexity of Trust-Control Relationships in Creative
Organizations: Insights From a Qualitative Analysis of a Conductorless Orchestra. Social
Forces, 86(1), 1-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2007.0100
Kramer, R. (2009). Rethinking Trust. Harvard Business Review, June 2009. Available at:
Lincoln, Y. & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. New York: Sage. ISBN: 978-0803924314
Locke, K. (2001). Grounded Theory in Management Research. Sage, London. ISBN:
Lopes, M.P., Cunha, M.P., & Rego, A. (2011). Integrating positivity and negativity in
management research: The case of paradoxical optimists. Management Research, 9(2),
97-117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/1536-541111155236
Luhmann, N. (1979). Trust and power. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 978-0471997580
Mayer, R., Davis, J., & Schoorman, F. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust.
Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709-734. Available at:
McAllister, D. (1995). Affect-and Cognition-Based Trust as Foundations for Interpersonal
Cooperation in Organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 24-59. Article Stable.
Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis. 2nd ed. Sage, Thousand
Oaks. ISBN: 978-0803955400
Mishra, A., & Mishra, K. (2008). Trust Is Everything. Raleigh, NC: Lulu Press. ISBN:
Moorman, C., Zaltman, G., & Deshpande, R. (1992). Relationships between providers and
users of market research: Dynamics of trust within and between organizations. Journal of
Marketing research, 29, 314-328. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3172742
Moorman, C., Deshpande, R., & Zaltman, G. (1993). Factors Affecting Trust in Market Research
Relationships. Journal of Marketing, 57, 81-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1252059
Morgan, R. & Hunt, S. (1994). Commitment-Trust. Theory of Relationship Marketing. Journal of
Marketing, 30(2), 19-30.
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management – http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/jiem.1046
Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self
and Identity, 2, 223-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298860390209035
Neves, P. (2011). Sucesso e Mudança nas Organizações - Uma questão de confiança. Lisboa:
Editora RH. ISBN: 978-9728871307
Putnam, R. (1993). Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton:
Princeton University Press. ISBN: 978-0691037387
Rotter, J. (1967). A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust. Journal of
Personality, 35(4), 651-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1967.tb01454.x
Rousseau, D., Sitkin, S., Burt, R., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: a
cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 393-404.
Schwartz, S. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied
Psychology: An International Review, 48, 23-47.
Schwartz, S. H., Melech, G., Lehmann, A., Burgess, S., Harris, M., & Owens, V. (2001).
Extending the cross-cultural validity of theory of basic human values with a different method
of measurement. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32(5), 519-542.
Six, F. (2007). Building interpersonal trust within organizations: A relational signaling
perspective. Journal of Management of Governance, 11(3), 285-309.
Smith, M. (1975). When I Say No, I Feel Guilty: How to Cope - Using the Skills of Systematic
Assertive Therapy. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN: 978-0307785442
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1993). Grounded Theory methodology: An overview. In N.K. Denzin
& Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 1-18). London: Sage
Publications. ISBN: 978-0803946798
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1998, 2007). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and
Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 2nd and 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA:
Sage. ISBN: 978-1412906449 (pbk)
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures
and techniques. Sage Publications. ISBN: 978-0803932517
Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management – http://dx.doi.org/10.3926/jiem.1046
Tamayo, A., Mendes, A, & Torres, M.G. (2000). Inventário de Valores Organizacionais. Estudos
de Psicologia, 5(2), 289-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-294X2000000200002
Walumbwa, F., Avolio, B., Gardner, W., Wernsing, T., & Peterson, S. (2008). Authentic
Leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management,
34(1), 89-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0149206307308913
Zand, D. (1972). Trust and Managerial Problem Solving. Administrative Science Quarterly,
17(2), 229-239. Article Stable. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393957
Zanini, M. (2007). Confiança – O Principal Ativo Intangível de uma Empresa. Rio de Janeiro:
Editora Campus. ISBN 9788535227819.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com