Buradasınız

Natürel Zeytin Yağındaki Klorofil Renk Maddelerinin Isısal Kararlılığı

Thermal Stability of Chlorophyll Pigments in Virgin Olive Oil

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (2. Language): 
The aim of the present study was to determine the changes in the chlorophyll content and the K232 and K270 specific extinction coefficient values in virgin olive oil (VOO) subjected to high temperatures for 24 h. VOO, was obtained from Kahramanmaraş city, Turkey, and subjected to 150, 160, 170, 180. 190 and 200ºC for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 h, and the chlorophyll content and the K232 and K270 specific extinction coefficient values were determined. The chlorophyll content of VOO decreased significantly as the treatment temperature and the extent of heat treatment increased (P<0.05) Especially, the temperature above 180ºC, the chlorophyll content decreased below 3% after 24 h. The K232 and K270 specific extinction coefficient values of VOO increased significantly with increasing the treatment temperature and time (P<0.05). The values of K232 and K270 specific extinction coefficients reached to 9.12 and 5.28 (1%, 1 cm), respectively, at 200ºC after 24 h. However, the rates of the increase in these values did not change with respect to different temperature and time. A significant inverse relationship was found between the chlorophyll content and the K232 and K270 specific extinction coefficient values (P<0.05). This study showed that chlorophyll, as one of the major quality criteria for olive oils, is heat-liable, and decomposes at high temperatures and long treatment times. In addition, increases in the conjugated diene and triene contents of VOO indicate the accelerated oxidation reactions at high temperatures; therefore VOO is no longer classified as “virgin olive oil” according to the official standards.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın amacı, yüksek sıcaklıklara maruz bırakılan natürel zeytinyağında klorofil ve konjuge bağların miktarlarındaki değişimi 24 saat süresince belirlemektir. Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye’den temin edilen natürel zeytinyağı, 150, 160, 170, 180. 190 ve 200ºC sıcaklıklarda 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 ve 24 saat bekletilmiş ve natürel zeytinyağının klorofil miktarı ve 232 ve 270 nm’deki absorbans değerleri ölçülmüştür. Natürel zeytinyağının klorofil miktarı sıcaklık ve süre arttıkça istatistiksel olarak önemli oranda düşüş göstermiştir (P<0,05). Özelikle, 180ºC üzeri sıcaklıklarda 24 saat işlem gören sızma zeytinyağında klorofil miktarı %3’ün altına düşmüştür. Natürel zeytinyağının K232 ve K270 absorbans değerleri, sıcaklık ve sürenin artışına paralel istatistiksel olarak önemli oranda artmıştır (P<0,05). 200ºC sıcaklıkta ve 24 saat sonunda natürel zeytinyağının K232 absorbans değeri 9,12 (1%, 1cm) ve K270 absorbans değeri 5,28 (1%, 1 cm)’ye ulaşmıştır. Ancak, farklı sıcaklık ve süreler sonunda K232 ve K270 absorbans değerlerindeki artış hızı hemen hemen sabit kalmıştır. Lineer regresyon analizinde, klorofil miktarındaki düşüş ile K232 ve K270 absorbans değerlerindeki artış arasında istatistiksel olarak önemli negatif bir ilişki bulunmuştur (P<0,05).Sonuç olarak, natürel zeytinyağının kalite göstergelerinden olan klorofilin ısıya karşı duyarlı olduğu ve uzun süre sıcaklık uygulamalarından olumsuz etkilendiği görülmüştür. Ayrıca, yüksek sıcaklıkla meydana gelen oksidasyon reaksiyonları zeytinyağında konjuge bağların artışına neden olmuştur. Bulunan K232 ve K270 absorbans değerleri, resmi standartlarda verilen değerleri aştığı için natürel zeytinyağı vasfını yitirmiştir.

REFERENCES

References: 

Allouche, Y., Jimenez, A., Gaforio, J.J., Uceda, M., Beltran, G. 2007. How Heating Affects Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality Indexes and Chemical Composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55:9646–9654. Angerosa, F. 2002. Influence of Volatile Compounds on Virgin Olive Oil Quality Evaluated by Analytical Approaches and Sensor Panels. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 104:639–660.
Angerosa, F., Campestre, C., Giansante, L. 2006. Analysis and Authentication. In: Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology (Editor: Boskou, D.). AOCS Press, IL. pp. 113–172. Anonymous, 2001. Spectrophotometric Investigation in the Ultraviolet. COI/T20/Doc. no. 19/Rev.1. International Olive Oil Council, Spain. Anonymous, 2004. International Conference on the Health Effect of Virgin Olive Oil. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 35:421–424.
Aparicio, R., Roda, L., Albi, M.A., Gutiérrez, F. 1999. Effect of Various Compounds on Virgin Olive Oil Stability Measured by Rancimat. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47:4150–4155.
Ayadi, M.A., Grati-Kamun, N.H. 2009. Physico-Chemical Change and Heat Stability of Extra Virgin Olive Oils Flavored by Selected Tunisian Aromatic Plants. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, (47): 2613–2619.
Bester, E., Butinar, B., Bucar-Miklavcic, M., Golob, T. 2008. Chemical Changes in Extra Virgin Olive Oils from Slovenian Istra after Thermal Treatment. Food Chemistry, 108:446–454.
Boskou, D. 2006. Characteristics of the Olive Tree and Olive Fruit. In: Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology (Editor: Boskou, D.). AOCS Press, IL. pp. 13–19.
KSÜ Doğa Bil. Derg., 17(2), 2014
KSU J. Nat. Sci., 17(2), 2014
40 Araştırma Makalesi
Research Article
Boskou, D., Blekas, G., Tsimidou, M. 2006. Olive Oil Composition. In: Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology (Editor: Boskou, D.). AOCS Press, IL. pp. 41–72. Caponio, F., Bilancia, M.T., Pasqualone, A., Sikorska, E., Gomes, T. 2005. Influence of the Exposure to Light on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality during Storage. European Food Research and Technology, 221:92–98. Chen, B.H., Liu, M.H. 1998. Relationship between Chlorophyll a and β-Carotene in a Lipid-Containing Model System during Illumination. Food Chemistry, 63:207–213. Cichelli, A., Pertesana, G.P. 2004. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Analysis of Chlorophylls, Pheophytins and Carotenoids in Virgin Olive Oils: Chemometric Approach to Variety Classification. Journal of Chromatography A, 1046:141–146. Del Giovine, L., Fabietti, F. 2005. Copper Chlorophyll in Olive Oils: Identification and Determination by LIF Capillary Electrophoresis. Journal of Food Control, 16:267–272.
Endo, Y., Usuki, R., Kaneda, T. 1984. Prooxident Activities of Chlorophylls and Their Decomposition Products on the Photooxidation of Methyl Linoleate. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 61:781–784.
Farhoosh, R., Khodaparast, M.H.H., Sharif, A., Rafiee, S.A. 2012. Olive Oil Oxidation: Rejection Points in terms of Polar, Conjugated Diene, and Carbonyl Value. Food Chemistry, 131: 1385–1390.
Jaber, H., Ayadi, M., Makni, J., Rigane, G., Sayadi, S., Bouaziz, M. 2012. Stabilization of Refined Olive Oil by Enrichment with Chlorophyll Pigments Extracted from Chemlali Olive Leaves. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 114:1274–1283.
Kiritsakis, A., Kanavouras, A., Kritsakis, K., 2002. Chemical Analysis, Quality Control and Packaging Issues of Olive Oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 104:628–638.
Mahmoud, E.A.E-.M., Dostalova, J., Pokorny,J., Lukesova, D., Dolezal M. 2009. Oxidation of Olive Oils during Microwave and Conventional Heating for Fast Food Preparation. Czech Journal of Food Sciences, 27:S173–S177.
Malheiro, R., Oliveira, I., Vilas-Boas, M., Falcão, S., Bento, A., Pereira, J.A. 2009. Effect of Microwave Heating with Different Exposure Times on Physical and Chemical Parameters of Olive Oil. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47:92–97.
Morello, J.-R., Motilva, M.-J., Tovar, M.-J., Romero, M.-P. 2004. Changes in Commercial Virgin Olive Oil (cv Arbequina) during Storage, with Special Emphasis on the Phenolic Fraction. Food Chemistry, 85:357–364. Ozyilkan, O., Colak, D., Akcali, Z., Basturk, B. 2005. Olive: Fruit of Peace against Cancer. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6:77–82.
Perez-Jimenez, F., Ruano, J., Perez-Martinez, P., Lopez-Segura, F., Lopez-Miranda, J. 2007. The Influence of Olive Oil on Human Health: Not a Question of Fat Alone. Molecular Nutrition Food Research, 51:1199–1208.
Pokorny, J., Kalinova, L., Dysseler, P. 1995. Determination of Chlorophyll Pigments in Crude Vegetable Oils. Pure & Applied Chemistry, 67:1781–1787.
Rahmani, M., Csallany, A.S. 1998. Role of Minor Constituents in the Photooxidation of Virgin Olive Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 75:837–843.
Tsimidou, M.Z. 2006. Olive Oil Quality. In: Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology (Editor: Boskou, D.). AOCS Press, IL. pp. 93–111.
Visioli, F., Bogani, P., Galli, P., 2006. Healthful Properties of Olive Oil Minor Components. In: Olive Oil: Chemistry and Technology (Editor: Boskou, D.). AOCS Press, IL. pp. 173–190.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com