Competing Geopolitical Interests of China, Russia and the United States in Central Asia and the Caspian Region
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1. Nicholas J. Spykman (1893-1943), a Dutch-American geostrategist, developed a notable reinterpretation of Mackinder‟s geopolitical theory. Contrary to Mackinder, he put more emphasis on the concept of Rimland, which means that the great land and sea confrontation to establish world domination takes place near the Eurasian coast, not the Eurasian landmass.
2. St. Petersburg sought to secure an outlet to the Mediterranean in two different ways. The first was to gain control of the Balkans, which had been under Ottoman rule, the second to control the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus, again under Ottoman rule. The Russian strategy was to wait for resentment at the domination of the Sultan to grow and then intervene in a subsequent war against Turkish domination. Once the resentment had spread, Russian forces would fight alongside the local populations, which the tsar proclaimed himself to be the protector of – the Slavs of the Balkans were mostly Orthodox like the Russians – to reverse the Ottoman occupation of their land, and then impose Russian control over the region. The Tsar‟s hostility toward Turkish rule was hardened by the war aims of the United Kingdom, France and Piedmont, which supported Turkey. Indeed, the Crimean War marked the end, for a while, of Russia‟s military expansion around the Black Sea and of Nicholas I‟s pseudo-religious claims in the Balkans.
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21. Nanay, J. (2005), Russia and the Caspian Sea Region, in J. Kalicki y D. Goldwyn (eds.), Energy & Security. Toward a New Foreign Policy Strategy, Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, pp. 127-147.
22. Sagers M. (2007), Developments in Russian Gas Production since 1998: Russia‟s Evolving Gas Supply Strategy, Eurasian Geography and Economics, nº 48 (6), pp. 651-98. 23. Scalea, Daniele, Iran e Russia: amici o rivali? Eurasia, rivista di geopolitica, March 26, 2010. http://www.eurasia-rivista.org/iran-e-russia-amici-o-rivali/3592
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26. Swanström, op. cit., p. 392.
27. Madani, Amir, Russia: il cambiamento dei vertici in Kirghizistan, Limes, Revista Italiana di Geopolitica, March 21, 2010, http://temi.repubblica.it/limes/russia-il-cambiamento-dei-vertici-in-kir... Grazioli, trefano, Russia: le dinamiche del New Great Game, Revista Italiana di Geopolitica, March 21, 2010. http://temi.repubblica.it/limes/russia-le-dinamiche-del-new-great-game/1... 28. Aslan, Kursad (2007), U.S. Foreign Policy toward Central Asia: Institutions Matter, Allacedemic Research, February. http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/8/0/6/1/p1...
29. The White House (1995), A National Security Strategy of Engagement and Enlargement, February http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/nss/nss-95.pdf
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Competing Geopolitical Interests of China, Russia and the United States in … 29
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http://the-diplomat.com/indian-decade/2011/05/04/ipi-or-tapi-for-india%E... Robert M Cutler, Iran gas pipeline to Pakistan on hold, The Asia Times Online, February 19, 2011 http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/MB19Df01.html
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34. Fumagalli, op. cit., p. 6. 35. Dunn, Jonathan (2009), Rethinking American Strategy in Central Asia, Midwest Political Science Association 67, the Annual National Conference, March. http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/3/6/2/0... 36. It is worth pointing out that the Uzbek government refused to allow an international investigation of the causes and implications of the Andijan massacres in May 2005. Protesting against the government in Tashkent, many demonstrators from Andijan were beaten, imprisoned, and even killed by the Uzbek police and military forces. 37. Aslan, op. cit., p. 17.