Personality and Work Success among Expatriate Educational Leaders in the United Arab Emirates

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
Few studies have examined expatriate leadership in higher education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where expatriates make up the majority of higher education leaders. Such leaders need to be able to effectively interact with diverse colleagues despite possibly limited prior international experience and understanding of cultural differences. Such challenges can be seen to increase employee turnover, which challenges the success of Emirati higher education. This essay examines the impact of emotional intelligence, hardiness, and openness on self-reported probability of finishing contract and contract renewal of expatriate leaders in higher education in the UAE. The research can contribute to an improvement in the educational services in the UAE, and other Middle Eastern countries which feature high rates of employment of expatriate workers in higher education.



Bar-On, R. (2000) ‘Emotions and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory’. In: Bar-On, R. & Parker, J.D.A. (eds.). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace, pp. 363-388. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barrick, M.R., & Mount, M.K. (2003) ‘Impact of meta-analysis on understanding personality-performance relations’, In: Murphy, K.R. (ed.). Validity generalization: A critical review, pp. 197-222. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bar-On, R. (2000) ‘Emotions and social intelligence: Insights from the emotional quotient inventory’, In: Bar-On, R. & Parker, J.D.A. (eds.). The handbook of emotional intelligence: Theory, development, assessment, and application at home, school, and in the workplace, pp. 363-388. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bartone, P.T. (1998) ‘Test-retest reliability of the short hardiness scale’, unpublished manuscript, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership, US Military Academy, West Point, NY.
Bartone, P.T. (1999) ‘Hardiness protects against war-related stress in Army reserve forces’, Consulting Psychology Journal, 51, pp. 72-82.
Bartone, P.T. (2000) ‘Hardiness as a resiliency factor for United States forces in the Gulf War’. In: Violanti, J.M., Paton, D. and Dunning, C. (eds.). Posttraumatic Stress Intervention: Challenges, Issues, and Perspectives. Thomas, Springfield, IL, pp. 115-33.
Bartone, P.T. (2006) ‘Resilience under military operational stress: can leaders influence hardiness?’, Military Psychology,18, pp. 131-48.
Bartone, P.T., Ursano, R.J., Wright, K.M. & Ingraham, L.H. (1989) ‘The impact of a military air disaster on the health of assistance workers: a prospective study’, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 177, pp. 317-28.
Bartone, P. T., Eid, J., Johnsen, B. H., Laberg, J. C., & Snook, S. A. (2009) ‘Big five personality factors, hardiness, and social judgement as predictors of leader performance’, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 30(6), pp. 498-521.
Barrick, M. R., & Mount, M. K. (1991) ‘The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis’, Personnel Psychology, 44, pp. 1-26.
Barrick, M.R., & Mount, M.K. (2003) ‘Impact of meta-analysis on understanding personality-performance relations’. In: Murphy, K.R. (ed.). Validity generalization: A critical review. Pp.197-222. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bennett, M. J. (1993) ‘Towards a Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity’. In: Paige, R. M. (ed.) Education for the Intercultural Experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Cassidy, P. A. (2005) ‘Expatriate Leadership: An organizational resource for collaboration’, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, pp. 391-408.
Côte, S. & Miners, C.T.H. (2006) ‘Emotional Intelligence, Cognitive Intelligence and Job Performance’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, pp. 1-28.
Crowne, K. A., Phatak, A. V., Salunkhe, U., & Shivarajan, S. (2011) ‘Exploring Intelligences, Organizational Skills and Leadership in Mumbai, India’, International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology, 1(2), pp. 44-51.
Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research, Issue 7
Year 2014
Dalton, M. & Wilson, M. (2000) ‘The Relationship of the Five-Factor Model of Personality to Job Performance for a group of Middle Eastern Expatriate Managers’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 31(2), pp. 250-258.
Deller, J. (1997) ‘Expatriate selection: Possibilities and limitations of using personality scales’, In: Saunders, D. M. (ed.), New approaches to employee management 4, pp. 93-116. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Downes, M. Varner, I. I. & Hemmasi, M. (2010) ‘Individual profiles as predictors of expatriate effectiveness’, International Business Journal, 20(3), pp. 235-247.
Elenkov, D. S., & Manev, I. M. (2009) ‘Senior expatriate leadership’s effects on innovation and the role of cultural intelligence’, Journal of World Business, 44, pp. 357-369.
Eschleman, K. J., Bowling, N. A., & Alarcon, G. M. (2010) ‘A Meta-Analytic Examination of Hardiness’, International Journal of Stress Management, 17(4), pp. 277-307.
George, J.M. (2000) ‘Emotions and leadership. The role of emotional intelligence’, Human Relations, 53, pp. 1027-1055.
George, L. G., Helson, R., & John, O. P. (2011) ‘Personality Processes and Individual Differences: The “CEO” of Women’s Work Lives: How Big Five Conscientiousness, Extraversion and Openness Predict 50 Years of Work Experience in a Changing Sociocultural Context’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(4), pp. 812-830.
Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. (2000) ‘Leadership that gets results’, Harvard Business Review, 78(2), pp. 78-90.
Hayes, J. (2007) The theory and practice of change management. 2nd ed. Palgrave MacMillan, New York, N.Y.
Hystad, S.W., Eid, J., Laberg, J.C., Johnsen, B.H. & Bartone, P.T. (2009) ‘Academic Stress and Health: Exploring the Moderating Role of Personality Hardiness’, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 53(5), pp. 421-429.
Hystad, S.W., Eid, J., Johnsen, B.H.Laberg, J.C., & Bartone, P.T. (2010) ‘Personality and Social Sciences. Psychometric properties of the revised Norwegian dispositional resilience (hardiness) scale’, Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research 51, pp. 237-245.
Judge, T. A., & Ilies, R. (2002) ‘Relationship of Personality to Performance Motivation: A Meta-Analytic Review’, Research Reports: Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), pp. 797-807.
Kealey, D. J. & Protheroe, D. R. (1996) ‘The effectiveness of cross-cultural training for expatriates: An assessment of the literature on the issue’, International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 20 (2), pp. 141-165.
Leban, W. & Zulauf, C. (2004) ‘Linking emotional intelligence abilities and transformational leadership styles’, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 25, pp. 554-564.
Mayer , J.D. & Salovey, P. (1997) ‘What is emotional intelligence?’. In: Salovey, P. & Sluyter, D.J. (eds.). Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Educational implications, pp. 3-31. New York: Basic Books.
Mertens, D. M. (2003) ‘Mixed methods and the politics of human research: The transformative-emancipatory perspective’. In: Tashakkori, A. & Teddlie, C. (eds.). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research, pp. 135-164. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Middle Eastern & African Journal of Educational Research, Issue 7
Year 2014
Mol, S.T., Born, M.P., Willemsen, M.E., Henk-T., & Van Der Molen (2005) ‘Predicting Expatriate Job Performance for Selection Purposes’, Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36 (5), pp. 590-620.
Moon, T. W. & Hur, W. (2011) ‘Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Exhaustion, and Job Performance’, Social Behavior and Personality, 39(8), pp. 1087-1096.
Raduan, C.R., Subramaniam, S.R., Jegak, U., & Naresh, K. (2010) ‘Expatriate Performance in overseas assignment: The role of Big Five Personality’, Asian Social Science, 6 (9), pp. 104-113.
Rothstein, M.G., & Goffin, R.D. (2006) ‘The use of personality measures in personnel selection: What does current research support?’, Human Resource Management Review, 16, pp. 155-180.
Salami, S. O. (2011) ‘Personality and Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence’, Social Behavior and Personality, 39(6), pp. 785-794.
Schretlen, D.J., van der Hulst, E., Pearlson, G.D. & Gordon, B. (2010) ‘A neuropsychological study of personality: Trait openness in relation to intelligence, fluency, and executive functioning’, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 32(10), pp. 1068-1073.
Sheard, M. & Golby, J. (2010) ‘Personality Hardiness Differentiates Elite-Level Sport Performers’, USEP 8, pp. 160-169.
Sinangil, H. K., & Ones, D. S. (2001) ‘Expatriate management’. In: Anderson, N.,
Ones, D. S., Sinangil, H. K. & Viswesvaran, C. (eds.). Handbook of Industrial, Work & Organizational Psychology (1), pp. 425-443. London: Sage.
Srivastava, S. (2011) Measuring the Big Five Personality Factors. [Online] Available from: http://psdlab.uoregon.edu/bigfive.html. (Accessed on: 25 March 2012).
Stahl, G. K., Chua, C. H., Caligiuri, P., Cerdin, J. & Taniguchi, M. (2009) ‘Predictors of Turnover Intentions in Learning-Driven and Demand-Driven International Assignments: The Role of Repatriation Concerns, Satisfaction with Company Support, and Perceived Career Advancement Opportunities’, Human Resources Management, 48(1), pp. 89-109.
Walter, F., Cole, M.S. & Humphrey, R.H. (2011) ‘Emotional Intelligence: Sine Qua Non of Leadership or Folderol?’, Academy of Management Perspectives. February, pp. 45-59.
Weinberger, L.A. (2009) ‘Emotional intelligence, leadership style, and perceived leadership effectiveness’, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11, pp. 747-772.
Werner, S. (2002) ‘Recent developments in international management research: A review of 20 top management journals’, Journal of Management, 28 (3), pp. 277-305.
White, D.W., Absher, R.K. & Huggins, K.A. (2011) ‘The Effects of Hardiness and Cultural Distance on Sociocultural Adaptation in an Expatriate Sales Manager Population’, Journal of Personal Selling & Sales management, 31(3), pp. 325-337.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com