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KONUT MEMNUNİYETİNİN BOYUTLARI: DİKMEN’DE YAŞAYAN KIR KÖKENLİ KİŞİLERİN ALGILARINA DAYALI BİR ALAN ÇALIŞMASI

DIMENSIONS OF HOUSING SATISFACTION: A CASE STUDY BASED ON PERCEPTIONS OF RURAL MIGRANTS LIVING IN DİKMEN

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Publication Year:

DOI: 
10.4305/METU.JFA.2013.1.1

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (2. Language): 
Housing satisfaction is a complex concept that attracts researchers from various disciplines such as economics, sociology and planning. The studies in the literature show that housing satisfaction refers to more than physical satisfaction from the dwelling (e.g. Fried and Gleicher, 1961; Duncan, 1971; Kasarda and Janowtz, 1974; Galster and Hesser, 1981; Lu, 1999; Burby and Rohe, 1990; Kamp et al., 2003; Parkes et al., 2002; Kelekci and Berköz, 2006; and Erdoğan et al., 2007). It includes satisfaction from environmental setting, quality and aesthetic aspects (e.g. Varaday, 1983; Enosh et al., 1984; Cook; 1988; Burby and Rohe, 1990; and Kamp et al., 2003), satisfaction from the economic value of housing (e.g. Varady and Carroza, 2000; and Boyle and Kiel, 2001), community satisfaction (e.g. Kasarda and Janowtz, 1974; Galster and Hesser, 1981; Parkes et al., 2002; and Erdoğan et al., 2007), and satisfaction from urban services in the housing environment (e.g. Onibokun, 1974; Campbell et al., 1976; Fried, 1982; Türkoğlu, 1997; and Kelekci and Berköz, 2006). Although these dimensions shape the overall housing satisfaction, its definition is a subjective and contextdependent phenomenon (Campbell et al., 1976; Bardo and Hughey, 1984; Wiesenfeld, 1992; Lu 1999). It depends on the current conditions, needs and characteristics of inhabitants. With the help of this understanding, this study intends to reveal the content of housing satisfaction for a specific group. This paper aims to explore dimensions of housing satisfaction from the perceptions of rural migrants. This exploratory research was designed as a case study in the Dikmen district which is one of the oldest rural migrant settlements in Ankara. Currently, in the district, rural migrants who convey both rural and urban characteristics live in both squatter housing neighborhoods and former squatter housing neighborhoods transformed through improvement plans and urban transformation projects (Kahraman, 2008). This study investigates the perceptions of rural migrants living in physically different neighborhoods of the Dikmen district in order to demonstrate the diversities when defining housing satisfaction within the same district. By this way, in defining housing satisfaction, it uncovers the differences and similarities in perceptions of rural migrants living in squatter houses, and apartment buildings built in improvement plans and urban transformation projects. This paper contributes to the existing literature in two ways. Firstly, it enriches housing literature theoretically. It extends the meaning and dimensions of housing satisfaction by exposing housing satisfaction perceptions of rural migrants. Secondly, the study has the potential to contribute to the literature practically. Uncovering factors affecting the housing satisfaction of inhabitants takes a critical role in increasing the quality of housing layout and environment, and quality of life. Therefore, the results of this study may assist architects, city planners, and housing authorities in designing and constructing more qualified, sensitive and livable housing settings with reference to the needs and expectations of rural migrants. This paper includes four major parts. The first part reviews the literature on housing satisfaction presenting various indicators and dimensions of housing satisfaction. The second part summarizes the changing features and lifestyles of rural migrants in relation to the history of squatter housing transformation. The third part of this paper discusses the case study applied in a squatter housing neighborhood, and former squatter housing neighborhoods transformed through improvement plans and an urban transformation project located in the Dikmen district in Ankara; including the contextual setting of the study area, the data collection and data analysis processes, and the findings of the analytical procedures. The last part presents the summary and discusses the findings and contributions of the study in relation to the existing literature.
Abstract (Original Language): 
İçinde yaşanılan konuttan fiziksel olarak memnun olmanın ötesinde bir kavram olan konut memnuniyeti yaşam kalitesini şekillendiren temel bileşenlerden biridir. Bu çalışma, kır kökenli kişilerin konut memnuniyetinin boyutlarını bu kişilerin kendi algılarıyla tanımlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Bu amaçla çalışma Ankara kentinde kır kökenli kişilerin yaşadığı en eski bölgelerden olan Dikmen bölgesinde bir alan çalışması olarak tasarlanmıştır. Dikmen bölgesinde üç farklı konut alanında yürütülen çalışma ile gecekondu ve gecekondu dönüşüm alanlarında (ıslah imar planları ve kentsel dönüşüm modelleri ile dönüşmüş) yaşayan kır kökenlilerin konut memnuniyeti algılarındaki çeşitlilik belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Herbir alandan 25, toplamda 75 kişilik bir örneklem ile derinlemesine görüşmeler yöntemi kullanılarak veri toplanmış, içerik analizi ile konut memnuniyetini tanımlayan 25 adet algısal kavram (unsur) belirlenmiştir. Bu kavramların literatürde yer alan tartışmalar ışığında gruplanmasıyla konut memnuniyetinin boyutları tespit edilmiştir. Memnuniyetin boyutları konutun mimari özellikleri, büyüklüğü ve kalitesi; fonksiyonları; iç mekan özellikleri; konumu; ekonomik özellikleri; ve konut çevresinin sosyal özellikleri başlıkları altında değerlendirilmişitir. Tanımlayıcı istatistikler ile memnuniyeti tanımlamada kullanılan algısal kavramların ifade edilme sıklıkları belirlenerek, hem tüm alanda memnuniyeti tanımlamada ön plana çıkan kavramlar belirlenmiş hem de farklı konut sunum alanlarında memnuniyet algıları açısından benzerlik ve farklılıklar ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Çalışmanın bulguları konut memnuniyetinin konut kullanıcılarının algılarıyla tanımlanabilir olduğunu, bu algıların kullanıcıların fiziksel, sosyal, mekansal, ekonomik ve kültürel deneyimlerine, ihtiyaç ve beklentilerine göre şekillendirilip, önceliklendirildiğini ve memnuniyetin çok boyutlu yapıda olduğunu göstermiştir. Çalışma kır kökenlilerin yaşadığı fiziksel çevrenin algıları üzerinde etkisi olduğu sonucuna ulaşmıştır. Buna paralel olarak, farklı konut alanlarında konut memnuniyeti algıları farklılık göstermektedir. Diğer yandan, bu kişilerin ortak geçmişleri ve devam eden kırsal alışkanlıkları benzer algılar üretmelerini sağlamaktadır.

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