Buradasınız

BİR FIRSAT OLARAK SUÇ: SUÇUN DURUMSAL BELİRLEYİCİLER, SUÇ FIRSATLARI VE RUTİN FAALYETLER TEORS

Crime as a Function of Opportunity: Situational Determinants of Crime, Crime Opportunities and Routine Activities Theory

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Author NameUniversity of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
Contrary to traditional criminological theories that focus on the criminal, Routine Activities Theory (RAT) focuses on criminal events and maintains that crime can be effectively prevented through understanding the dynamics of crime. RAT scholars argue that crime will take place in the presence of these three factors: (1) motivated offender, (2) suitable target, and (3) absence of capable guardians. In this context, it is argued that criminal event will not take place if any one of these core elements is removed from the model. Further, RAT framework took a step beyond the Classical School’s basic view of crime as a rational choice by suggesting that even though to commit or not to commit a crime might be a rational choice, individuals do not have the opportunity to choose which crime opportunities will be available to them. By presenting a structural mechanism of crime, RAT scholars proposed that crime opportunities emerge as a result of people’s daily routines. Thus, according to RAT and other RAT-style theories like Opportunity Theory, the basic strategy for preventing, reducing, and controlling crime is to take routine precautions and measures that reduce crime opportunities in people’s daily activities.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Suçluya yogunlasan geleneksel kriminolojik yaklasımların aksine, Rutin Aktiviteler Teorisi (RAT) “suç olayı” üzerine yogunlasarak, suçun olusum mekanizmasını çözerek suçun önlenebilecegini savunmustur. RAT teorisyenleri suçun temel olarak su 3 faktörün bir arada bulunması durumunda meydana gelecegini öne sürmüslerdir: (1) motive olmus suçlu, (2) uygun hedef ve (3) hedefi suçludan koruyabilecek koruyucuların yoklugu. Bir sacayagına benzetebilecegimiz bu üç faktörden herhangi birisinin yoklugu durumunda suçun olusmayacagı savunulmustur. Ayrıca RAT, “her ne kadar suç islemek ya da islememek bireyin tercih edebilecegi seyler gibi görünse de, bireyin önüne çıkacak suç seçeneklerin neler olacagını seçme imkânının olmadıgını” ifade ederek, Klasik Okul’un ortaya koydugu, “suç rasyonel bir tercihtir” mantıgını bir adım daha öteye götürmüstür. Zira ortaya koyulan suç mekanizması ile suç fırsatlarının aslında insanların günlük rutin faaliyetlerine baglı olarak ortaya çıktıgı öne sürülerek suçun insanların günlük yasantılarının bir fonksiyonu oldugu tezi ortaya atılmıstır. Dolayısıyla, RAT ve Fırsat Teorisi gibi RAT varyantı teorilere göre suçun azaltılması, önlenmesi ve kontrol altına alınabilmesi için en temel strateji, hayatın günlük akısı içinde suç fırsatlarını azaltıcı tedbirlerin alınması olarak karsımıza çıkmaktadır.

REFERENCES

References: 

Alshalan, Abdullah, (2006), Cyber-Crime Fear and Victimization: An
Analysis of a National Survey, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation.
Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work,
Mississippi State University.
Bennett, Richard R., (1991), “Routine Activities: A Cross-Natiaonal
Assessment of a Criminological Perspective”, Social Forces, Vol.70,
No.1 (September 1991), pp.147-163.
Birkbeck, Christopher and LaFree, Gary, (1993), “The Situational
Analysis of Crime and Deviance”, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.
19, pp. 113-137.
Boeting, Brian. P., (2006), “The Routine Activity Theory: A Model for
Addressing Specific Crime Issues”, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
Vol. 75, Issue 6, pp.12-19.
Brantingham, Patricia L. and Brantingham, Paul J., (2004),
“Environment, Routine, and Situation: Toward a Pattern Theory of
Crime”, in Ronald V. Clarke and Marcus Felson (eds), Routine
Activity and Rational Choice, Advances in Criminological Theory
Volume 5. pp. 259-294, New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Clarke, Ronald, (1983), “Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical
Basis and Practical Scope”, Crime and Justice, Vol. 4. (1983), pp.
225-256.
26 Polis Bilimleri Dergisi: 11 (2)
Clarke, Ronald V., (1995), “Situational Crime Prevention”, Crime and
Justice, Vol. 19, Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to
Crime Prevention, pp. 91–150.
Clarke, Ronald V., (1997), Situational Crime Prevention: Successful
Case Studies, 2nd Edition. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Clarke, Ronald V. and Eck, John E., (2005), Crime Analysis for Problem
Solvers in 60 Small Steps, US Department of Justice, Office of
Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS). Elektronik olarak
tam metin halinde erisilebilecek adres:
http://www.popcenter.org/library/reading/PDFs/60Steps.pdf
Clarke, Ronald V. and Felson, Marcus, (2004), Routine Activity and
Rational Choice. Advances in Criminological Theory Volume 5.
New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Cohen, Lawrence E. and Felson, Marcus, (1979), “Social Change and
Crime Rate Trends: A Routine Activity Approach”, American
Sociological Review, Vol. 44, No.4 (Aug., 1979), pp.588–608.
Cohn, Ellen G. and Rotton, James, (2000), “Weather, Seasonal Trends
and Property Crimes in Minneapolis, 1987-1988: A Moderator-
Variable Time-Series Analysis of Routine Activities”, Journal of
Environmental Psychology, Vol.20, Issue 3, pp.257-272.
Cohn, Ellen G. and Rotton, James, (2003), “Even Criminals Take a
Holiday: Instrumental and Expressive Crimes on Major and Minor
Holidays”, Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol.31, Issue 4, pp.351-360.
Conklin, John E., (2004), Criminology, 8th Edition. Boston: Pearson
Education Inc.
Cullen, Francis T. and Agnew, Robert, (2003), Criminological Theory:
Past to Present - Essential Readings, Second Edition. Los Angeles,
CA: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Dolu, Osman, (2007), Fear of Online Crime and Public Policy: Privacy
vs. Security, Unpublished Dissertation. Department of Political
Science, Kent State University.
Felson, Marcus, (1986), "Linking Criminal Choices, Routine Activities,
Informal Control, and Criminal Outcomes", in Derek B. Cornish and
Ronald V. Clarke (eds), The Reasoning Criminal: Rational Choice
Perspectives on Offending, New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, pp.119-
128.
Bir Fırsat Olarak Suç: Suçun Durumsal Belirleyicileri, Suç Fırsatları ve Rutin
Faaliyetler Teorisi
27
Felson, Marcus, (1987), “Routine Activities and Crime Prevention in the
Developing Metropolis”, Criminology, Vol.25, Issue 4, pp.911-931.
Felson, Marcus, (1995), “Those Who Discourage Crime.” in John E. Eck
and David Weisburd (eds), Crime and Place, Crime Prevention
Studies, Volume 4. Criminal Justice Press, Monsey, New York,
U.S.A. and The Police Executive Research Forum, Washington,
D.C.. Willow Tree Press.
Felson, Marcus, (1996a), “Routine Activity Approach”, in Cordella Peter
and Siegel Larry, Readings in Contemporary Criminological Theory,
Boston: Northeastern University Press, pp.20-22.
Felson, Marcus, (1996b), “Situational Crime Prevention”, ,n Cordella
Peter and Siegel Larry, Readings in Contemporary Criminological
Theory, Boston: Northeastern University Press, pp.23-25.
Felson, Marcus, (1998), Crime and Everyday Life, Second Edition.
Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, A Sage Publications Company.
Felson, Marcus and Clarke, Ronald V., (1998), Opportunity Makes the
Thief: Practical Theory for Crime Prevention, Home Office, Policing
and Reducing Crime Unit, Police Research Series, Paper 98.
Electronically available at Home Office, Crime Reduction Web Site,
at http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs98.pdf.
Felson, Richard B., (2004), “Predatory and Dispute-related Violence: A
Social Interactionist Approach”, in Ronald V. Clarke and Marcus
Felson (eds), Routine Activity and Rational Choicei Advances in
Criminological Theory Volume 5. pp. 103-125, New Brunswick, NJ:
Transaction Publishers.
Hawley, Amos, (1950), Human Ecology: A Theory of Community
Structure, New York: Ronald.
Herbert, David T. and Hyde, Stephen W., (1985), “Environmental
Criminology: Testing Some Area Hypotheses”, Transactions of the
Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 259-
274.
Katyal, Neal K., (2002), “Architecture as Crime Control”, The Yale Law
Journal, Vol. 111, No. 5. (March, 2002), pp. 1039-1139.
28 Polis Bilimleri Dergisi: 11 (2)
Kennedy, Leslie W. and Baron, Stephen W., (1993), “Routine Activities
and a Subculture of Violence: A Study of Violence on the Street”,
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 30, No.1
(February 1993), pp.88-112.
Miethe, Terance D.; Stafford, Mark C. and Long, J. Scott, (1987), “Social
Differentiation in Criminal Victimization: A Test of Routine
Activities/Lifestyle Theories”, American Sociological Review, Vol.
52, No.2. (Apr., 1987), pp. 184-194.
Mustaine, Elizabeth E. and Tewksbury, Richard, (1998), “Predicting
Risks of Larceny Theft Victimization: A Routine Activity Analysis
Using Refined Lifestyle Measures”, Criminology, Vol. 36, Issue 4,
pp. 829-857.
Newman, Oscar, (1972), Defensible Space, Crime Prevention Through
Urban Design, New York: Macmillan Press.
Newman, Oscar, (1996), Creating Defensible Space, Online olarak
erisilebilecek adres: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Development Web Sitesi,
http://www.huduser.org/publications/pdf/def.pdf.
Osgood, D. Wayne; Wilson, Janet K.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman,
Jerald G.; and Johnston, Lloyd D., (1996), “Routine Activities and
Individual Deviant Behavior”, American Sociological Review, Vol.
61, No.4. (Aug., 1996), pp. 635-655.
Rice, Kennon J. and Smith, William R., (2002), “Socioecological Models
of Automotive Theft: Integrating Routine Activity and Social
Disorganization Approaches”, Journal of Research in Crime and
Delinquency, Vol. 39 No. 3 (August 2002), pp.304-336.
Roncek, Dennis W. and Maier, Pamela A., (1991), “Bars, Blocks, and
Crimes Revisited: Linking the Theory of Routine Activities to the
Empiricism of ‘Hot Spots’”, Criminology, Vol.29, Issue 4, pp.725-
753.
Schwartz, Martin D.; DeKeseredy, Walter S.; Tait, David; and Alvi,
Shahid, (2001), “Male Peer Support and A Feminist Routine
Activities Theory: Understanding Sexual Assault on the College
Campus”, Justice Quarterly, Vol.18, No. 3 (September 2001),
pp.623-649.
Bir Fırsat Olarak Suç: Suçun Durumsal Belirleyicileri, Suç Fırsatları ve Rutin
Faaliyetler Teorisi
29
Shaw, Clifford R. and McKay, Henry D., (1942), Juvenile Delinquency
and Urban Areas. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Sherman, Lawrence W.; Gartin, Patrick R. and Buerger, Michael E.,
(1989), “Hot Spots of Predatory Crime: Routine Activities and the
Criminology of Place”, Criminology, Vol. 27, Issue 1, pp.27–56.
Skogan, Wesley G., & Klecka, William R., (1977), The Fear of Crime.
Washington D. C.: American Political Science Association.
Smith, William R; Frazee, Sharon G.; Davison, Elizabeth L., (2000),
“Furthering the Integration of Routine Activity and Social
Disorganization Theories: Small Units of Analysis and the Study of
Street Robbery as a Diffusion Process”, Criminology, Vol.28, No.2
(May 2000), pp.489-523.
Stahura, John M. and Sloan, John J., (1988), “Urban Stratification of
Places, Routine Activities and Suburban Crime Rates”, Social
Forces, Vol. 66, No.4. (June, 1988), pp. 1102-1118.
Wilson, James Q. and Kelling, George L., (1982), “Broken Windows:
The Police and Neighborhood Safety”, The Atlantic Monthly, (March
1982). Electronically available at:
http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/198203/broken-w

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com