A Comparative Analysis of the Academic Performance of Distance and Oncampus Learners

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Abstract (2. Language): 
This study examined (i) the profile of the distance and on-campus learners, (ii) the academic performance of distance and on-campus learners, (iii) the advantages and disadvantages of learning through distance education and on-campus education, and (iv) how the disadvantages of learning through distance education could be reduced. The study found that the majority of distance and on-campus learners were female, single, and unemployed. Most off-campus learners were more than 20 years old, whilst on-campus learners were less than 20 years old. Off-campus learners tended to perform better than on-campus learners. Advantages of distance learning included application of acquired knowledge and skills if working; earning income if working; and studying at own pace, time and place. Disadvantages of studying off-campus included use of all Saturdays for face-to-face tutorials; inability to use library facilities on Saturdays due to tight schedule; some modules were not available on time for learners to use resulting in issue of photocopied handouts and notes by tutors and lecturers; and photocopied handouts were not serving a useful purpose since they were not appropriate for distance learning. Subsequently, off-campus learners suggested that the library should close late on Saturdays; lecturers and tutors should be available in their offices for consultations on Saturdays and during the week; lecturers should pin consultation schedules on their office doors; and lecturers and tutors who absent themselves should be reprimanded and/or requested to repay off-campus learners for the costs incurred travelling to regional learning centres.



Andrew, G. Et al; (1998). Help Seeking Among Students: Are Lecturers Seen as Potential
Source of Help? Study in Higher Education, Vol. 23, No. 3
Arena, (1989). Actualization del calculo de la Telesecundaria Mexicana. In Oliveira, J.P. & G.
Rumble (eds.). Educacion a distancia en America Latina: Analisis de costo-efectivedada.
Washington, D.C.
Babbie, E.R. (1983). The Practice of Social Research. (3rd Ed). Belmont, California.
Bailey, K. (1987). Methods of Social Research, (3rd Ed), New York. The Free Press.
Besser, et al; (1996). Impact of Distance Independent Education. Journal of the American
Society for Information Sciences, Vol. 47, No3, PP 80 - 91.
Batchelor, M. and Maxwell, T. (1987). 'Action evaluation' new education. International
Journal of Educational Theory and Practise, Vol 9, No 1-2.
Borg, W. R., & Gall, M. (1989). Educational research: An introduction (5th edn), Longman,
Chale, E.M. (1983). Tanzania Distance Teaching Programme. In Perraton, (Ed). Alternative
routes to formal education: Distance teaching for school equivalency. Baltimore, John
Hopkins University Press
Chang, T.M. et al; (1983). Distance Learning. U.S.A. Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing Company.
Chickening, A.W. (1974). Commuting Versus Residential Students. London . Jassey-Bass
Codd, J. A. (1988). Knowledge and control in the evaluation of educational organisations.
Deakin University Press, Geelong.
Cohen, S. et al, (1998). The Information Resource Management Program: A Case Study in
Distance Education. http://www.columbia.edu/~sc32/cmrevisedjpae.htm
David, J.S. (1982). Learning at a Distance A World Perspective. Athabasca University
Dlamini, S. (1998). Opening Remarks by the Hon. Minister of Education. in C. Magagula (Ed)
Issues on University Education in Swaziland: A Report on National Seminar held at the
University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni Campus
Dlamini, B.M. (1998). An Overview of the Key Issues in the Provision of University
Education in Swaziland in C. Magagula (Ed) Issues on University Education in Swaziland. A
Report on National Seminar held at the University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni Campus
Dodd, J. (1981). The Credibility of Distance Education. England: Longman.
Ericson, et al; (1994). The Development of Flexible Modular MED. The International Journal
Educational Management. Vol. 8, No.1 PP 68-80.
Fisher, P. (1986). Library Service and Quality of off-campus Education. London. Brandon
Garrison, D.R. (1989). Understanding Distance Education. London. Routledge.
Government of Swaziland. (1986). Survey of Manpower. Mbabane: Kingdom of Swaziland.
Government of Swaziland. (1998). Development Plan 97/98-1998/99. Mbabane.
Government of Swaziland.
Haque, A.K. (1995). Cost-Effectiveness of Distance Education. One World Many Voices, Vol.
Hawkes, M. 1995. Evaluating interactive video distance learning systems. A practical guide
of considerations and alternatives. Oak Brook, IL: North Central Regional Educational
Inglis, P. (1987). Distance Teaching is Dead Long Live Distance Learning. Conference of the
Australia and New Zealand Association for the Advancement of Science, Queensland.
Juran, J. M. (1989). Juran on leadership for quality. The Free Press, New York. Lindner, P.
(1998). Assessment Tools for Distance Learning: A Review of Literature. Washington State
Board for Community and Technical Colleges and North Seattle Community College (ERIC
Documentation Reproduction Service Number ED 436 176)
Kaman, J. (1995). Off-campus learners Perceptions of the Quality of Course Material and
Student Support in Distance Learning Programmes in Kenya. One World Many Voices. Vol.
Keast, D.A. (1998). Part-time University Education: the International Journal Education
Management. Vol. 12, No.2, PP 114 - 119.
Keegan, D. (1990). Foundations of Distance Education. (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Kemmis, S. (1984). Educational research is research for education. Australian Educational
Researcher, 11(1), March.
Khumalo, P. (1994). An Investigation into the Problems Encountered by PGCE part-time
Students, Bachelor of Education. University of Swaziland, B.ED. Project.
Laird, B. & Layard, R. (1974). Traditional versus Open University teaching methods: A Cost
Comparison. Higher Education. vol. 3, no. 4.
Magagula, C.M. (1998). Distance Education as an Alternative Strategy for Providing
University Education in Swaziland. in C. Magagula (Ed). Issues on University Education in
Swaziland. A Report on National Seminar held at the University of Swaziland, Kwaluseni
Mahlck, L. and Temu, E.B. (1989). Distance versus College Training Primary School
Teachers. Paris: IIEP.
Makhubu, L.P. (1998). Welcome Remarks. In C. Magagula (ed.) Issues on University
Education in Swaziland. A Report on National Seminar held at the University of Swaziland,
Kwaluseni Campus.
Miguel, C.M. (1995). Distance Education Universities in Latin America: Expectation and
Disappointments. One World Many Voices, Vol. 2.
Ministry of Education. (1996). Education Statistics. Mbabane. Government of Swaziland.
Mutava, (1991). Some problems of Distance Education. London. Macmillan Press.
Nettlefold, B.A. (1988). Library Services for off-campus Students. Canada Ireland. Office of
Educational Research and Improvement. One World Many Voices. Vol. 2.
Nouwens, F. and Robinson, P. (1991). Evaluation and the development of quality learning
materials. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 7(2), 93-116.
Newlands, D. and Mclean, A. (1996). The Potential of Live Teacher Supported Distance
Learning: A Case Study of the Use of Audio Conferencing at the University of Aberdeen.
Nielsen, H.D. & Tatto, M.T. (1993). Teacher upgrading in Sri Lanka and Indonesia. In
Perraton, (Ed). Alternative Routes to Formal Education: Distance Teaching for School
Equivalency. Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press.
Perry, W. & Rumble, G. (1987). A short Guide to Distance Education .London. International
Extension College.
Rumble, G. (1997). The Costs and Economics of Open and Distance Learning. London:
Kogan page.
Snyder, A.C. Logue, S. & Preece, B. (1996). Role of Libraries in Distance Education.
Association of Research Libraries. Spec Kit 216. Washington D.C.
Stephen, F. Et al; (1995). Developing a Mixed Mode University: some Issues and Problems.
One World Many voices. Vol. 1.
The Swazi Observer. (1998). Mbabane. Swaziland. 24th April.
The Times of Swaziland. (1998). Mbabane. Swaziland. 8th October.
University of Swaziland. UNISWA Calendar 1998/99. Institute of Distance Education (IDE).
Kwaluseni: Publication and Information Office. University of Swaziland.
University of Swaziland. (1998). Graduation Ceremony. UNISWA Newsletter. Kwaluseni:
University of Swaziland.
University of Swaziland. (1997). The Vice Chancellors Report. University of Swaziland.
Kwaluseni Campus.
Walff, L. & Futagami, S. (1982). The Malawi Correspondence College. In Perraton,(Ed).
Alternative Routes to Formal Education: Distance Teaching for School Equivalency.
Baltimore, John Hopkins University Press
Whittington, N. (1987). Is instructional television educationally effective? A Research
Review. The American Journal of Distance Education, 1: 47-57.
Wilson, J.M. (1996). Distance Learning for Continuous Education. Educom Review.
Wynne, M.P. (1998). Libraries without Walls; the Delivery of Library Services to Distance
Users. United Kingdom. Macmillan Press.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com