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STEM TUTUM ÖLÇEĞİNİN TÜRKÇEYE UYARLANMASI

ADAPTATION OF STEM ATTITUDE SCALE TO TURKISH

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DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.7974

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Since the beginning of the 20th century the need for individuals who are well-educated in science (natural sciences and social sciences), technology, engineering and mathematics areas increased. Main reasons underlying such a need are economy, technology and innovation. For all these reasons, many countries tried and are still seeking to improve quality of the education given in subjects such as science, technology engineering and mathematics. Countries developed different methods, ways and projects to increase the number of well-educated people in these areas and started competing among themselves. The term or concept of STEM was firstly suggested in 2001 by one of the NSF (National Science Foundation) directors, J. Ramaley (Yıldırım and Altun, 2014; Voutour, 2014). Although it was suggested in 2001 by the NSF, the history of STEM concept goes back to the beginning of the 19th century (Ostler, 2012). STEM is an abbreviation formed using the first letters of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics words (Yıldırım and Altun, 2014; Gonzalez and Kuenzi, 2012; Voutour, 2014; Moomaw, 2013). For the last 10 years STEM education is considered as a vital subject for the researchers. STEM plays an important role for economic competition (Erdoğan et al., 2013). The relation between the workforce and STEM areas has been emphasized in the recent years and the importance of encouraging and preparing the future generations to choose these areas has been highlighted. In spite of this, many countries failed and keep failing at this. PISA (International Student Assessment) results show that both Turkey and the western countries are not at a sufficient level in terms of science and mathematics (OECD, 2010). Researchers and countries have made some efforts to increase the interest in STEM areas and the number of people who want to have careers in such areas (Maltese and Tai, 2010). Therefore, this study aims to adapt the Sources of Middle School Mathematics STEM Attitude Scale developed by Faber et al. (2013) for the Turkish context. The first step of the study was to get permission were taken by means of e-mail from Faber et al., (2013) who developed the scale, the original form of which is in English, to be applied on middle school students and the scale development process has been started. Thereafter, SAS was translated into Turkish by four experts who have a good command of English and Turkish. Turkish draft, which is formed by considering the common points in the translations of four experts, was translated back into English by an expert on both languages. A scale form of 37 items, the original and Turkish translation of which are in compliance with each other, was prepared as a result of this procedure. Opinions of experts in the area were taken in order to ensure the concept validity of SAS. After the necessary arrangements were made according to the opinions of the experts, the scale was applied on 30 students attending 6th, 7th and 8th grades. Later, The sample consisted of totally 1350 students, attending 6th, 7th and 8th grades in Ankara and Mus, Turkey. Overall 1360 students 48% of participants are male (n=653), 52% of participants are female (n=707). One hundred and fifty students did not provide any information about this section. 29 % of participants are 6th grade (n=395); 31% of participants 7th grade (n=422), and 40% of participants are 8th grade students (n=543). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and some descriptive analysis were conducted. EFA was applied to investigate the structural validity of the scale. After that, CFA was conducted in order to test the structure with theoretical basis. Factors determined with EFA were named as Mathematics, Science, Engineering, Technology and 21st Century Skills as it is with the original scale. The structure of STEM attitude scale with four factors was tested by means of CFA. When the fit values obtained (χ2/df = 4.72; RMSEA=0.063, SRMR=0.053, CFI=0.96, GFI=0.87, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.95, IFI=0.95) are investigated, it can be said that the scale featured a good level of fit. When the other fit indices are investigated, the fact that GFI and AGFI values are higher than 0.90 (Hooper, Coughlan and Mullen, 2008; Sümer, 2000) and RMR and RMSEA values are lower than 0.05 indicates that there is a good model-data fit (Jöreskong and Sörbom, 1993; Sümer, 2000). On the other hand, the fact that GFI was determined to be higher than 0.85 while AGDI was determined to be higher than 0.80 and RMR and RMSEA values were determined to be lower than 0.080 are acceptable for model and data fit (Anderson and Gerbing, 1984; Hooper, Coughlan and Mullen, 2008; Sümer, 2000; Hu and Bentler, 1999). It can be said that GFI (0.87) and AGFI (0.85) values obtained in this study are at an acceptable level for fit since they are close to 0.90. The other fit indices are NFI and CFI fit indices. Increasing fit indices NFI and CFI fit indices were used in the study. The fact that these index values are above 0.95 indicates a very good fit (Hu and Bentler, 1992; Sümer, 2000). It can be said that NFI (0.95) and CFI (0.96) values obtained in this study are in a very good fit. According to the results of the t test of the scores of those in the lower %27 band and in the higher 27% band, there is a significant difference between means scores for each item. According to this, it can be said that items in the scale are distinctive. Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient values calculated for the dimensions of STEM attitude scale vary between 0.86 and 0.89. This indicates that these values are close to the alpha values calculated for the original form of the scale. This indicates that Turkish adaptation and the original scale has a high level of fit. In conclusion, it was understood that STEM attitude scale had a structure with four factors as the case with the original scale. EFA and CFA results of the scale factors were sufficient and the scale served its purpose. In the light of these results, it is understood that Turkish version of the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) attitude scale for secondary school student can be used.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın amacı, Faber vd (2012) tarafından geliştirilen STEM Tutum Ölçeğini (STEM Attitude Scale) Türkçeye uyarlamak ve ölçeğin geçerliliğini ve güvenirliğini araştırmaktır. Türkçe form, eş-değerlik sınamasının ardından 6, 7 ve 8. sınıflarında öğrenim gören 1360 ortaokul öğrencisine uygulanmıştır. Öğrencilerin sınıflarına göre dağılımları incelendiğinde; %29’nu (n=395) altıncı, %31’i (n=422) yedinci ve %40’ı (n=543) sekizinci sınıfta okumaktadır. Ölçeğin yapı geçerliliğini incelemek için açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. STÖ’ nün güvenirliğinin belirlenmesi için ise Cronbach Alfa iç tutarlık katsayısı, düzeltilmiş madde toplam korelasyonu ve %27’lik üst ve alt grupların madde ortalamaları arasındaki farkların anlamlılığı t testi ile incelenmiştir. Sonuçlar göstermiştir ki STEM Tutum Ölçeği’nin Türkçe versiyonu dört faktörden oluşmaktadır. Faktörlerin Cronbanch alfa değerleri 0.86 ile 0.89 arasında, düzeltilmiş madde toplam puan korelasyonları 0.38 ile 0.78 arasında değişmektedir. Ölçüt geçerliği sonuçları, ölçeğin amacına hizmet ettiğini göstermiştir. T testi sonuçları ise %27’lik alt ve üst grupların madde ortalamaları arasındaki tüm farkların anlamlı olduğunu göstermiştir. Açımlayıcı faktör analizinin ardından ortaya çıkan yapı 1360 ortaokul öğrencisine uygulanarak doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (RMSEA, 0,063; GFI, 0.87; AGFI, 0,85; SRMR, 0.053; NFI, 0.95; CFI, 0.96; IFI, 0.96) yapılmış ve STEM Tutum Ölçeğinin yapısının doğrulandığı belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuçlara göre, STEM Tutum Ölçeği’nin Türkçe versiyonu, STEM’ e karşı öğrenci tutumların ölçülmesi için geçerli ve güvenilirdir.

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International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic
Volume 10/3 Winter 2015
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