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ERGENLERDE ALGILANAN SOSYAL DESTEK VE SİBER ZORBALIĞA EĞİLİM ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİLER: ARKADAŞTAN VE ÖĞRETMENDEN ALGILANAN SOSYAL DESTEĞİN ARACI ROLÜ

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AND CYBERBULLYING TENDENCY IN ADOLESCENTS: THE MEDIATOR ROLE OF PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT FROM FRIEND AND TEACHER

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DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.7693

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Introduction and the Purpose of the Study That the information and communication technologies cause negative relationships among adolescents is called as “cyberbullying” by the researchers. Kowalski ve Limber (2007) defined cyberbullying as sending harmful or disturbing messages or pictures to others on purpose by using the internet and other communication tools. Shariff and Gouin (2005) defined cyberbullying stated that cyberbullying is a kind of psychological bullying done by using electronic tools such as mobile phones, blogs, web sites, chat rooms, etc. According to Lacey (2007), cyberbullying is that using digital technology with the purpose of sending other individuals disturbing messages or doing social aggression. On analyzing the studies done abroad, it can be seen that cyberbullying and victimization are common problems. Li (2006) determined that one fourth of every student in secondary schools is exposed to cyberbullying, one sixth of every student do the cyberbullying behavior. Ybarra and Mitchell (2004a) determined that 15 % of the students between the ages of 10 and 17 do the cyberbullying behavior. In an another study done with the students between the ages of 13-18, it was determined that almost half of the students are exposed to cyberbullying, in addition to this, 21 % of them are cyberbullies (Raskauskas and Stoltz, 2007). In a similar study, it was stated that 7 % of the students between 11-15 ages received threatening e-mails at least once (Noret and Rivers, 2006). In a study done by Lazuras, Barkoukis, Ourda and Tsorbatzoudis (2013), it was found that 32 % of the participants were exposed to or witnessed cyberbullying, 12,5 % of them did bullying. The studies done in Turkey also present that cyberbullying is a common problem. Topçu (2008) found that 48 % of the high school students do cyberbullying. Ayas (2011) reported that 16 % of the secondary school students did cyberbullying, 17 % of them were exposed to it. Dilmaç (2009) determined in his study done with the university students that 23 % of them have done cyberbullying at least once throughout their lives, 55 % of them have been exposed to cyberbullying at least once. Arıcak (2009) stated that once in every five students has done cyberbullying and almost half of the students have been exposed to cyberbullying. The fact that cyberbullying is so common among the adolescents and it causes various problems has caught the attentions of the researchers. Yet it is seen that these researches have only analyzed the relations of cyberbullying with the other psychological terms, not the mediator effects of it. Thus, this study aims to analyze the direct and indirect relationships between the social support that the adolescents perceive and the tendency to cyberbullying. In direction with this general purpose, answers to the questions below are sought: 1. What is the direction, level and significance level between the social support level that the adolescent perceive and their tendency to cyberbullying? 2. Does the social support perceived by the students from their friends mediate the relationships between the social support perceived from the family and the tendency to cyberbullying? 3. Does the social support perceived by the students from their teachers mediate the relationships between the social support perceived from the family and the tendency to cyberbullying? Method This study is a correlation survey model which aims to analyze the relations between the perceived social support of the adolescents and their tendency to cyberbullying. Karasar (2009) defined correlation survey model as a model which aims to determine the level and the existence of the change among two or more variables. Within this model, the relations between the pervceived social support of the adolescent and their tendency to cyberbullying have been analyzed. Research Working Group The data of the study was collected from 301 students getting educated in 9th, 10th and 11th grades in one Anatolian high school, one industrial vocational high school, one private high school and science high school in Erzurum in 2014-2015 academic years by considering the school type, the number of the students and accessibility. The work group consists of 129 (43 %) girls and 172 (57 %) boys. The ages of the students range between 14 and 18, and the average of the age is 16.6. Data Collecting Instruments A personal information questionnaire was prepared by the researcher in order to determine gender, grade, school type, age, parent’s educational background of the participants, where they connect to the internet and weekly internet connection hours. Besides, Cyberbullying Attitude Scale developed by Türkoğlu (2013) and Revised Perceived Social Support Scale developed by Yıldırım (1997) were used in the study. Analysis of the Data Within the purpose of the study, correlation analysis was done to determine the relations of the variables and the relations were determined with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The r value, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, was interpreted as: if the r value is between .00-.29, it indicates low relations; if it is between .30 and .69, it indicates medium relations; if it is between .70 and 1.00, it indicates high relations (Büyüköztürk, 2008). Statistically, the significance level is accepted as .05. In addition, hierarchical regression analysis was done do to determine whether the social support perceived from friends and teachers mediate the relations between the social support perceived from family and the tendency to cyberbullying, Sobel z test was used to determine whether this mediation is significant. For the analyses of the study, SPSS 21.00 was used. Findings and Discussion Correlations between the Variables It was determined that there is negative, low and significant relations between the social support perceived from family, friend and teacher and tendency to cyberbullying r= -.24, -.29, -.24, p<.05, respectively). The Mediation Role of the Social Support Perceived from Friend Determining significant relations between social support perceived from family and friend enables the anticipated mediation relation to be tested. Hierarchical regression analysis was done do to determine whether the social support perceived from friend mediates the relations between the social support perceived from family and the tendency to cyberbullying. In the first phase of hierarchical regression anaylysis, only the predictor effect of social support perceived from family on cyberbullying was analyzed and it was seen that social support perceived from family β=.-24, t= -4.30, p<.05) explains 5.8 % of tendency to cyberbullying (R=.24, R2=.058, F (1, 299)=18.44, p<.05). In the second phase of hierarchical regression anaylysis to determine whether the social support perceived from friend has a mediation role on the relation between the social support perceived from family and the tendency to cyberbullying, social support perceived from friend was added to hierarchical regression anaylysis, and it was seen that it contributed as 3.3 % to the explanation of the tendency to cyberbullying. In the second phase of hierarchical regression anaylysis, it was determined that the tendency to cyberbullying explains 9,1 % of total variance (R=.30, R2=.091, F (2, 298)=14.87, p<.05). In the second phase of hierarchical regression analysis, it was seen that the predictor effect of social support perceived from family on tendency to cyberbullying has completely disappear (β=.-10, t=-1.48, p>.05). Thus, it can be said that the social support perceived from friend (β= -.23, t=-3.27, p<.05) completely mediates this relation. The results of Sobel z test (Z=-4.93, p<.05) done to determine whether the mediation role of the social support perceived from friend is significant indicate that this mediation relation is statistically significant. This evidence is similar to the results of the researches in the literature (Casas, Del Rey, Ortega-Ruiz, 2013; Fanti, Demetriou and Hawa, 2012; Hemphill et al., 2012; Ybarra and Mitchell, 2004b). It is thought that as the secondary school students are under the effect of adolescence through which many physiological and psychological changes are experienced, they do not get enough support from their social environment and as a result of that they become more addictive to the internet and are abstracted from their social lives (Tanrıverdi, 2012). The Mediation Role of the Social Support Perceived from Teacher Determining significant relations between social support perceived from family and teacher enables the anticipated mediation relation to be tested. Hierarchical regression analysis was done do to determine whether the social support perceived from teacher mediates the relations between the social support perceived from family and the tendency to cyberbullying. In the first phase of hierarchical regression anaylysis, only the predictor effect of social support perceived from family on cyberbullying was analyzed and it was seen that social support perceived from family (β=.-24, t= -4.30, p<.05) explains 5.8 % of tendency to cyberbullying (R=.24, R2=.058, F (1, 299)=18.44, p<.05). In the second phase of hierarchical regression anaylysis to determine whether the social support perceived from teacher has a mediation role on the relation between the social support perceived from family and the tendency to cyberbullying, social support perceived from teacher was added to hierarchical regression analysis, and it was seen that it contributed as 3.6 % to the explanation of the tendency to cyberbullying. In the second phase of hierarchical regression analysis, it was determined that the tendency to cyberbullying explains 9,4 % of total variance (R=.31, R2=.094, F (2, 298)=15, 46, p<.05). In the second phase of hierarchical regression analysis, it was seen that the predictor effect of social support perceived from family on tendency to cyberbullying has decreased but is still significant (β=.-19, t=-3.361, p<.05). Therefore, it can be said that the social support perceived from teacher (β= -.19, t=-3.436, p<.05) partly mediates this relation. The results of Sobel z test (Z=3.13, p<.05) done to determine whether the mediation role of the social support perceived from teacher is significant indicate that this mediation relation is statistically significant. This evidence can be considered as important that it indicates the relations between the teacher behaviors and tendency to bullying. As cyberbullying occur in virtual environment, it is stated that its relation with the school life has been ignored (Eroğlu, 2014). However, the conducted studies show that adolescents who think that their teachers do not pay much attention to them and who experience problems in terms of school security are under the risk of cyberbullying (Sourander et al., 2010). Therefore, it can be said that it is of great importance that the teachers should display supportive behaviors in the fight against cyberbullying. Results and Suggestions According to the evidence of the study, one of the most effective way to fight against cyberbullying is that opportunities should be created for the students to get social support from their parents, friends and teachers. In this period, particularly parents and teachers have significant roles. School managers, teachers and school counselors should be well aware of cyberbullying and informing parents and students about it will facilitate the fight against cyberbullying. In addition, it can be suggested that more research related to other social support sources (neighbors, relatives, society, etc.) should be done to determine the factors related to the tendency to cyberbullying.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu araştırmanın amacı aileden algılanan sosyal destek ile siber zorbalığa eğilim arasındaki ilişkide arkadaştan ve öğretmenden algılanan sosyal desteğin aracı rolünü incelemektir. Araştırmanın katılımcıları 301 ortaöğretim öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Katılımcıların 129’u (% 43) kız, 172’si (% 57) ise erkektir. Katılımcılar 14-18 yaş arasındadır ve yaş ortalaması 16,6’dır. Veriler Revize Edilmiş Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği ve Siber Zorbalık Tutum Ölçeği aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Verileri analiz etmek için SPSS 21.00 programı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada değişkenler arası ilişkileri hesaplamak için Pearson Korelasyon Katsayısından yararlanılmıştır. Öğretmenden ve arkadaştan algılanan sosyal desteğin aileden algılanan sosyal destek ile siber zorbalığa eğilim arasındaki ilişkide aracı rol oynayıp oynamadığı hiyerarşik regresyon analiziyle incelenmiştir. Pearson korelasyon analizi sonucunda Revize Edilmiş Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeğinin alt boyutları ile siber zorbalığa eğilim arasında negatif yönde ve anlamlı ilişkilerin olduğu görülmüştür. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi bulguları aileden algılanan sosyal destek ve siber zorbalığa eğilim arasındaki ilişkide arkadaştan algılanan sosyal desteğin tam aracı rol oynadığını göstermiştir. Öte yandan öğretmenden algılanan sosyal desteğin bu ilişkide kısmi aracı rol oynadığı belirlenmiştir. Öğretmenden ve arkadaştan algılanan sosyal desteğin aracı rollerinin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı olup olmadığı Sobel z testiyle incelenmiştir. Sobel z testinden elde edilen sonuçlar her iki değişkenin aracılık rolünün de anlamlı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Araştırmadan elde edilen bu bulgular alanyazın doğrultusunda tartışılmıştır.

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International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic
Volume 10/3 Winter 2015
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778 Adem PEKER – Yüksel EROĞLU
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International Periodical For the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic
Volume 10/3 Winter 2015
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