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BİYOLOJİ ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ “BAKTERİ” KONUSUNDAKİ BİLİŞSEL YAPILARININ VE ALTERNATİF KAVRAMLARININ BELİRLENMESİ

DETERMINING BIOLOGY STUDENT TEACHERS’ COGNITIVE STRUCTURE AND ALTERNATIVE CONCEPTS ON THE CONCEPT OF “BACTERIA”

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.4964

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Abstract (2. Language): 
To understand how students transfer knowledge to their minds and how they structure this knowledge is one of the most important issues that researchers are interested in. Constructive learning approach indicates that individuals construct knowledge actively through associating this knowledge with pre-existing knowledge and previous experiences (Anderson 1992; Bodner 1986; Mills, Shaw, Van Horne, Zhang and Boughman, 2008). According to this approach, due to the associations with previous experiences, the existing cognitive structures in mind affect individuals' perceptions of new events and the new cognitive structures that they will construct. It is, then, possible that a weak cognitive structure will affect the process of constructing new knowledge in mind adversely, and thus, leading to failure to construct new knowledge meaningfully (Tsai and Huang 2002; Vosniadou, Ioannides, Dimitrakopoulou and Papademetriou, 2001). In this respect, rather than merely dealing with what knowledge students have, researchers have headed towards several techniques (Vance, Miller and Hand, 1995). Bahar (2003) provides these strategies as follows: word association, structured grid, diagnostic tree, concept maps, texts of conceptual change, analogy, and predict-observe-explain. Of the techniques that investigate students’ cognitive structure, word association techniques is the most commonly used and oldest one, which was used as a data collection instrument in this study (Bahar, Johnstone and Sutcliffe, 1999; Hovardas and Korfiatis, 2006; Özatlı and Bahar, 2010; White and Gunstone, 2000). The aim of the current study is to determine biology student teachers’ cognitive structure on the concept of bacteria. However, to the best knowledge of the author, there is not any study in the literature that uses the free word association test and the drawing technique to investigate biology student teachers’ cognitive structure on the concept of bacteria. Qualitative research method was applied in this study (Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2006). The data were collected from 44 biology student teachers. The free word-association test and the drawing technique were used as data collection instruments. The internal validity of the themes and subthemes categories was ensured by the authors and two experts in biology education. The average reliability between the coders was calculated as 90%. The data collected were subject to content analysis. Analyzing the biology student teachers’ responses to the concept of bacteria on the free word association test, these responses were coded and divided into categories. Based on the categories, frequencies were provided. The data of the free word association test have been analyzed with the Nvivo-9 programme for preparing Model. As a result of the analysis of the data collected through the free word-association test and the words provided by biology student teachers, 8 categories were determined, namely, “bacteria identification”, “structure and properties of bacteria”, “bacterial genetics”, “classification of bacteria”, “bacteria-containing environments”, “bacteria review fields and tools”, “bacteria-immunity” and “the formation of the nutrients and energy in bacteria”. Although the biology student teachers had a valid categorical cognitive structure considering the structural properties of the bacteria and the definition and properties of the bacteria, the association of these categories with other categories was not found to be enough. In the first category, the related answers provided by biology student teachers in response to the concept of bacteria mostly fall into the category of “bacteria identification " and appeared as the dominant category. On the other hand, It is determined that the data collected through drawing technique to investigate biology student teachers' cognitive structures related to the concept of bacteria fall into 5 categories in total. These can be listed as follows: “structure and properties of bacteria”, “bacteria identification”, “bacterial genetics”, “classification of bacteria” and “the formation of the nutrients and energy in bacteria”. Moreover, the data collected through two data collection instruments indicated that student teachers had misconceptions about bacteria considering the themes determined. Since this concept concerns many disciplines, it causes students to have difficulty in forming conceptual structures related to the concept of bacteria. Teachers play an important role in students' learning concepts. Teachers of biology, which is related to many disciplines, adopt great responsibility for students' forming and learning the appropriate conceptual structures related to the concept of bacteria. The reasons why students are successful or unsuccessful in learning concepts are the leading issue in educational research for an effective learning. In brief, attaching importance to concept teaching and learning at any stage of education and organizing learning-teaching activities accordingly are of high importance to meaningful learning. Therefore, it is necessary to determine students' conceptual structures, inaccurate and incomplete information, and concepts before starting to teach. Teaching and learning should be planned through suitable strategies, methods, and techniques. Thus, students can code meaningfully new concepts and information in their minds, and create accurate correlation between these concepts and information, which leads to more meaningful and permanent learning.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Öğrencilerin bilgiyi zihinlerine nasıl aldıkları ve zihinlerinde nasıl yapılandırdıklarını anlamak araştırmacıların ilgisini çeken en önemli konulardan biridir. Yapılandırmacı öğrenme yaklaşımı bilginin birey tarafından zihinde aktif bir şekilde ön bilgileriyle ve önceki deneyimleriyle ilişkilendirilerek yapılandırıldığını ifade etmektedir (Anderson 1992; Bodner 1986; Mills, Shaw, Van Horne, Zhang ve Boughman, 2008). Bu yaklaşıma göre önceki deneyimlerle yapılan ilişkilendirmeler nedeniyle zihindeki mevcut bilişsel yapılar bireylerin yeni olayları algılamalarını ve yeni oluşturacakları bilişsel yapıları etkilemektedir. Zayıf bir bilişsel yapının, yeni bilgilerin zihinde yapılandırılma sürecini olumsuz etkilemesi ve böylece yeni bilginin anlamlı olarak yapılanamamasını olumsuz etkilemesi söz konusu olabilmektedir (Tsai ve Huang 2002; Vosniadou, Ioannides, Dimitrakopoulou ve Papademetriou, 2001). Bu kapsamda araştırmacılar öğrencilerin sadece sahip oldukları bilgileri değil; öğrencilerin sahip oldukları farklı bilgi ve kavramlar arasındaki ilişkilerini ve bilişsel yapılarını ölçen tekniklere yönelmişlerdir (Vance, Miller ve Hand, 1995). Bahar (2003), bu stratejiler, kelime ilişkilendirme, yapılandırılmış grid, dallanmış ağaç, kavram haritaları, kavramsal değişim metinleri, analoji, tahmin-gözlem-açıklama şeklinde sıralanabilir. Öğrencilerin bilişsel yapısını inceleyen bu tekniklerden en genel ve en eski olanı, aynı zamanda bu araştırmada da kullanılmış olan teknik kelime ilişkilendirme tekniğidir (Bahar, Johnstone ve Sutcliffe, 1999; Hovardas ve Korfiatis, 2006; Özatlı ve Bahar, 2010; White ve Gunstone, 2000). Bu çalışmanın amacı biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının “bakteri” kavramı konusundaki bilişsel yapılarını incelemektir. Konuyla ilgili literatür taramasında bağımsız kelime ilişkilendirme testi ve çizme-yazma tekniğinin birlikte kullanılarak biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının bakteriyle ilgili kavramsal yapılarını araştıran herhangi bir çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Bu çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır (Yıldırım ve Şimşek, 2006). Veriler toplam 44 öğretmen adayının katılımıyla toplanmıştır. Verilerin toplanmasında bağımsız kelime ilişkilendirme testi ve çizme-yazma tekniği kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada oluşturulan kategori ve alt kategorilere ait iç tutarlılık makale yazarları ve biyoloji alanından iki alan uzmanı tarafından sağlanmıştır. Kodlayıcılar arasındaki ortalama güvenirlik % 90 olarak bulunmuştur. Elde edilen veriler içerik analizine göre düzenlenmiştir. Bu kapsamda biyoloji öğretmen adaylarının bakteri kavramına vermiş oldukları cevaplar kodlanarak kategorilere ayrılmıştır. Bu kategorilere göre frekans değerleri verilmiştir. Verilerin değerlendirilmesinde Nvivo-9 programından yararlanılarak Model oluşturulmuştur. Bağımsız kelime ilişkilendirme testinde ifade edilen kelimeler toplam 8 kategori altında toplanmıştır. Bunlar, “bakterileri tanımlama”, “bakterilerin yapı ve özellikleri”, “bakteri genetiği”, “bakterilerin sınıflandırılması”, “bakterilerin bulunma ortamları”, “bakterileri inceleyen alanlar ve inceleme araçları”, “bakteri-bağışıklık” ve “bakterilerde besin ve enerji oluşumu” şeklinde sıralanmıştır. Öğretmen adaylarının belirlenmiş olan bilişsel yapılarının yeterli olmadığı baskın kategoriyle diğer kategorileri yeterince ilişkilendiremedikleri belirlenmiştir. İlk ve baskın olarak ortaya çıkan kategori “bakterileri tanımlama” kategorisi olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Diğer taraftan bakteri kavramıyla ilgili çizim-yazım tekniğinden ise 5 kategori ortaya çıkmıştır. Bunlar; “bakterilerin yapı ve özellikleri”, “bakterileri tanımlama”, “bakteri genetiği”, “bakterilerin sınıflandırılması” ve ““bakterilerde besin ve enerji oluşumu” şeklindedir. Her iki ölçme aracıyla “bakterileri tanımlama”, “bakterilerin yapı ve özellikleri” ve “bakteri genetiği” kategorileri ortak ve baskın kategoriler olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Diğer taraftan katılımcıların her iki ölçme aracıyla elde edilen kategoriler kapsamında bakteri konusunda alternatif kavramlara sahip oldukları da belirlenmiştir. Bunun temel nedeni bakteri kavramının pek çok alanla ilgili olmasından dolayı öğrenilmesini zorlaştırmasından kaynaklanabilir. Öğretmenler öğrencilerin kavram öğrenmelerinde önemli rol oynamaktadırlar. Biyoloji öğretmenleri, pek çok alanla ilişkili olan biyoloji alanındaki kavramların öğrenilmesinde ve öğrencilerin kavram yapılarının oluşturulmasında önemli sorumluluk taşımaktadır. Bu nedenle öğrencilerin kavram öğrenmekte neden başarısız oldukları pek çok araştırmanın konusunu oluşturmaktadır. Eğitim kademelerinin hepsinde kavram öğrenme ve öğretme, ona uygun faaliyetler yapmak oldukça önemlidir. Bu nedenle öğretime başlanmadan önce öğrencilerin kavramsal yapıları, hatalı, eksik bilgi ve kavramları belirlenmelidir. Öğretim uygun strateji, yöntem ve tekniklerle planlanmalıdır. Böylece öğrenenler yeni kavram ve bilgileri zihinlerinde anlamlı kodlamış kavram ve bilgiler arasında doğru bağlantılar kurarak daha anlamlı ve kalıcı öğrenme sağlanmış olur.

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Biyoloji Öğretmen Adaylarının “Bakteri” Konusundaki Bilişsel Yapılarının… 909
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910 Hakan KURT – Gülay EKİCİ
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