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OBEZİTENİN ÖNLENMESİ VE TEDAVİSİNDE FİZİKSEL AKTİVİTE VE EGZERSİZİN ROLÜ

THE ROLE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EXERCISE IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OBESITY

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Abstract (2. Language): 
To be able to live a healthy life, it is necessary to protect the balance between the input and the consumption of energy. The adipose (greasy) tissue constitutes 15-18 % of the physical weight of the adult man and 20-25 % of the physical weight of the adult woman. When this proportion exceeds the rate of 25 % in men and the rate of 30% in women, we talk about the formation of obesity. Also World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as “Abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in fat tissues in a degree to cause a health problem”. When the energetic input exceeds the energy consumption, the energy that was not consumed is stored in the body and then we talk about the appearance of obesity. Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for a number of diseases, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases (coronary artery disease), some cancer types (gall bladder, endometrium, ovary and breast cancers in women, colon and prostate cancers in men) and musculoskeletal system problems. Prevention from obesity has a great importance. The aim of obesity treatment is; to target a realistic weight loss, to decrease the risk of obesity related morbidity and mortality, to give individuals a balanced diet habit and increase the quality of life. The methods used in the obesity treatment are gathered under 5 groups. (Medical nutrition (Diet) treatment, exercise treatment, behaviuoral change treatment, medicine treatment, surgical treatment). Exercise and physical activity treatment plays important role in obesity treatment. Studies reported that regularly engaging in physical activity and exercise play important role in weight management
Abstract (Original Language): 
Sağlıklı bir yaşam sürdürmek için, alınan enerji ile harcanan enerjinin dengede tutulması gerekmektedir. Yetişkin erkeklerde vücut ağırlığının %15-18’i, kadınlarda ise %20-25’ini yağ dokusu oluşturmaktadır. Bu oranın erkeklerde %25, kadınlarda ise %30’un üstüne çıkması obeziteyi oluşturmaktadır. Ayrıca Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (DSÖ) tarafından da aşırı kilo ve obezite, sağlığı bozacak ölçüde vücutta aşırı yağ birikmesi olarak tanımlanmıştır. Günlük alınan enerjinin harcanan enerjiden fazla olması durumunda, harcanamayan enerji vücutta yağ olarak depolanmakta ve obezite oluşumuna neden olmaktadır. Fazla kilo ve obezite, hipertansiyon, tip 2 diabetes mellitus, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar (koroner arter hastalığı), bazı kanser türleri (kadınlarda safra kesesi, endometriyum, yumurtalık ve meme kanserleri, erkeklerde ise kolon ve prostat kanserleri) ve kas-iskelet sistemi problemleri de dahil olmak üzere bir dizi hastalık için önemli risk faktörleridir. Obezite oluşmadan korunma büyük önem taşımaktadır. Obezite tedavisinde amaç, gerçekçi bir vücut ağırlığı kaybı hedeflenerek, obeziteye ilişkin morbidite ve mortalite risklerini azaltmak, bireye yeterli ve dengeli beslenme alışkanlığı kazandırmak ve yaşam kalitesini yükseltmektir. Vücut ağırlığının 6 aylık dönemde %10 azalması, obezitenin yol açtığı sağlık sorunlarının önlenmesinde önemli yarar sağlamaktadır. Obezite tedavisinde kullanılan yöntemler 5 grup altında toplanmaktadır (Tıbbi beslenme (diyet) tedavisi, egzersiz tedavisi, davranış değişikliği tedavisi, farmalojik tedavi, cerrahi tedavi). Obezitenin tedavisinde egzersiz ve fiziksel aktivite tedavisi önemli rol oynamaktadır. Çalışmalar düzenli olarak fiziksel aktivite ve egzersize katılımın kilo kontrolünde önemli rol oynadığını göstermektedir.

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