Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012)

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Author NameUniversity of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
Since the end of the Cold War, Western donors have been following a strategy of democracy promotion to Africa that involves giving assistance to both the state and the non-state actors including governments (as part of good governance program), parliaments, courts, political parties, civil society, electoral management bodies, election observation missions etc. The paper explores both the positive and the negative impacts of such assistance to African emerging democracies by using Ethiopia as a case study. The paper primarily deals with three sub-sectors of democracy promotion program: assistances to political parties, international election observation missions, and civil society. In this study, I argue that human rights and self interest (economic, political or both) shape the foreign aid policy of Western donors including democracy assistance. Moreover, the paper attempts to prove that democratic reversals or backsliding and human rights abuses in the recipient states can trigger aid reduction or termination only when the recipient states are neither economically nor strategically valuable to the Western donors.



Abbink, J. (2006): “Discomfiture of Democracy? The 2005 election crisis in Ethiopia and its
aftermath”, in: African Affairs 105(419): 173-199.
Addis Fortune (03-30-2009): “First Lady Makes it to EFFORT’s Helm”.
AEUP (20 February 2009): “Engineer Hailu Shawl, and Mr. Michael C. Gonzales, agreed to work
together: President Barack Obama’s Administration would Reassess USA policy in
AFP (25 January 2008): “Western World cannot impose democracy in Africa: Ethiopian PM“.
The African Monitor (30 August 2005): “Herman Cohen says aid to Ethiopia should
besuspended,” Vol. II, No. 61.
Amundsen, Inge (2007): Donor Support to Political Parties: Status and Principles, R 2007: 6, CMI
(Chr. Michelsen Institute) Reports.
Angola Press (08 July 2005): “Ethiopians in France denounce repression back home.”
AP (10 June 2005): “Calls for peace after deadly clashes in Ethiopia.”
AP (04-05-05): “Ethiopia to spread web access across country in 3 yrs”.
AP (31 March 2005): “Ethiopia Orders U.S. Workers’ Expulsion. “
APA (2009-03-12): “Ethiopia-record inflation-report”
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Appiagyei-Atua, Kwadwo (n.d): “Civil Society, Human Rights and Development in Africa: A
Critical Analysis.” (Accessed 4
September 2008).
Axelrod, Robert, and Robert O.Keohane (1993): “Achieving Cooperation under Anarchy:
Strategies and Institutions In: Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, ed. David A. Bladwin.
New York: Columbia University Press.
Aregawi Berhe (2004): “The Origin of the Tigray People’s Liberation Front”, in: African Affairs,
103/413, pp. 569-592.
Barratt, Bethnay (2002): “Aiding or Abetting: British Forgien Aid Decisions and Recipient country
Human Rights”. Paper prepared for delivery at the 2002. Annual meeting of the American
Political Science Association, August 29-September 1, 2002.
Barro, Robert (1997): Determinants of Economic Growth, Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.
The Bakersfield Californian (14 June 2005), citing Chris Tomlinson, Associated Press Writer,
“Unrest a threat to Ethiopian Reputation”
BBC (16 May 2005): “Ethiopia poll prompts protest ban: Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi has
ordered a month-long ban on demonstrations, following an election disputed by the
BBC (06 May 2009): “Ethiopia asked to name ‘plotters’”.
BBC (30 May 2001): “Ethiopia cracks down on corruption”.
BBC (9 April 2007): “Ethiopia genocide charges dropped”.
BBC (15 August 2007): “Ethiopia New Year terror thwarted”.
BBC (14 May 2003): “Swiss reject Ethiopia funds claim”.
BBC (17 December 2005): “Treason charges filed in Ethiopia”.
BBC (1 January 2009): “US fails to break Somali Islmaists”.
BBC (23 July 2007): “What next for Ethiopia’s freed leaders?“.
Berhanu Nega (1998 EC): Yenetsanet Goh Siked. Likelebes Yetemokerew Ye Ethiopia Democracy (in
Amharic) (“The Dawn of Freedom”).
Berhanu Abegaz (April 2001): “Ethiopia”, in: Aid and Reform in Africa Lesson from Ten Case Studies.
Shantayanan Devarajan, David R. Dollar and Torgny Holmgren (Eds.), The World Bank:
Washington DC, pp. 167-226.
Boneo, Horacio and Bob Dahl (May 2006): “Lessons Learned About Political Finance in Post
Conflict Societies,” in: Political Finance in Post-Conflict Societies, Jef Fisher, Marcin Walecki,
Jeffrey Carlson (Eds.), USAID and IFES, pp. 5-8.
Bratton, Michael and Nicolas van de Walle (1997): Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime
Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, Stephen (2001): ‘Authoritarian Leaders and Multiparty Elections in Africa: How Foreign
Donors Help to Keep Kenya’s Daniel Arap Moi in power’, Third World Quarterly, Vol.22,
No.5, pp.725–39.
Brown, Stephen (2005): “Foreign Aid and Democracy Promotion: Lessons from Africa”, in: The
European Journal of Development Research, Vol.17, No.2, June 2005, pp.179–198.
Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Alastair Smith, James D. Morrow, and Randolph M. Siverson (2003):
The Logic of Political Survival: Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Cammack, D., McLeod, D. and Rocha Menocal, A. (2006) ‘Donors and the “Fragile States”
Agenda: A Survey of Current Thinking and Practice’. ODI Report submitted to the Japan
International Co-operation Agency. London: ODI.
Capital (March 2009): “Meles tells parliament it does not need to know how many soldiers died in
Carey, Sabine C. (2006); European aid reconsidered: How important are human rights? Paper
prepared for the international studies association meeting in San Diego, March 2006.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Carapico, Sheila (2002): “Foreign Aid for Promoting Democracy in the Arab World”, Middle East
Journal 56(3): 379-95.
Carlson, Jeffrey (n.d): From Discourse to Action: Avoiding Pitfalls in Political Finance Disclosure
Initiatives, IFES Political Finance White Paper Series.
Carlson, Jeffrey and Marcin Walecki (May 2006): “Main Determinants of Post-conflict Societies and
Implications for Political Finance”, in: Political Finance in Post-Conflict Societies, Jef Fisher,
Marcin Walecki, Jeffrey Carlson (Eds.), USAID and IFES, pp. 5-8.
Carothers, Thomas (1999): Aiding Democracy Abroad: The Learning Curve. Washington: Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace.
Carothers, T. (2004): Critical Mission. Essays on Democracy Promotion. Washington, DC:
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carothers, Thomas (February 2009): “Democracy Promotion Under Obama: Finding a Way
Forward”, Carnegie, Policy Brief, No. 77, pp.1-8.
Carothers, Thomas (1997): ‘Democracy without Illusions’, Foreign Affairs, Vol.76, No.1, pp.85–99.
Carothers, Thomas and Marina Ottaway (2000): Funding Virtue: Civil Society Aid and Democracy
Promotion. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
Carothers, Thomas (2007): US Democracy Promotion During and After Bush. Washington: Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace.
Caton, Matthias (November 2007). Effective Party Assistance: Stronger Parties for Better Democracy. Policy
Paper. IDEA
Chazan, N. (1992): “Africa’s Democratice Challenge”, World Policy Journal, vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 279-
Chege, Michael Abdalla Hamdok, Per Nordlund, and Joram Rukambe (2007): Political Parties in East
Africa: Diversity in Political Party Systems. International IDEA Research and Dialogue
Chomsky, Noam and Edward Herman (1979): The Washington Connection and Third-World Fascism.
Boston: MA: South End.
The Christian Science Monitor (31 May 2005):”Democracy gains in Ethiopia, a key US ally in terror
war: Initial results Monday show opposition parties have won at least 174 seats, up from
Claassen, Christopher (April 2007): “Does Support for Democracy Matter? Regime Preferences,
Democracy and Democratization”, paper presented at the Midwest Political Science
Association annual meeting, April 2007.
Clayton, Andrew, Peter Oakley Jon Taylor (October 2000): Civil Society Organizations and Service
Provision, Civil Society and Social Movements Programme, Paper Number 2. United
Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
Clinkenbeard, Steven E. (2002): “Donors and Dictators: Multilateral aid Conditionality and
democratization”, paper prepared for delivery at the 2002 Annual meeting of the American
Political Science Association, 29 August-September 1, 2002.
CNN (18 January 2006): “Britain cuts off aid to Ethiopian government: Money redirected to aid
agencies after protestors killed, jailed.”
CPJ (29 August 2008): “CPJ site blocked in Ethiopia”
Cudjoe, Franklin (14 December 2005): “Africa Needs Freer Markets- and Fewer Tyrants.” Wall
Street Journal.
Dadge, David (19 May 2009): “Ethiopia’s new climate of fear”, The Guardian.
Daily Monitor (9 April 2009): “Ethiopia: WB rejects gov’t growth forecast, says IMF figures more
Danaher, Kevin, Phillip Berryman, and Medea Benjamin (1987): Help of Hindrance? United States
Aid in Central America. San Francisco : California. Institute for food and Development
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Deegan, Heather (April 2003): Elections in Africa-The past ten years. An assessment. Briefing paper
No. 2. The Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Dessalegn Rahmato (2002): “Civil Society Organizations in Ethiopia”. In: Ethiopia: The Challenge of
Democracy from Below. Bahru Zewde and Siegfried Pausewang (Eds.). Nordiska Afrikainstitute
and Forum for Social Studies, pp. 103-119.
Dessalegn Rahmato and Meheret Ayenew (July 2004): Democracy Assistance to Post-Conflict
Ethiopia Building Local Institutions? Working Paper 27. Democratic Transition in Post-Conflict
Societies Project, Conflict Research Unit, Netherlands Institute of International Relations’
Clingendael,’ in cooperation with Forum for Social Studies (FSS), Addis Ababa.
Deutsche Welle (2 April 2009): “Yebudin haya gubaena ena Africa” (“G20 and Africa”). (Amharic
De Zeeuv, Jeroen (2004): “The Record of Democracy Assistance to Post-Conflict Societies, paper
presented at the 45th Annual Convention of the International Studies Association (ISA)
Montreal, Canada, 17-20 March 2004.
Diamond, Larry (1997): “In search of Consolidation”, in: Consolidating the Third WaveDemocracies:
Regional Challenges, (Ed), Larry Diamond. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Djankov, Simeon, Jose Garcia-Montalvo, and Marta Reynol-Querol (2006): “Does Foreign Aid
Help? Available at SSNR: http://SSRN.com/abstract=896550, (Accessed 2 June 2009.
Donno, Daniela (2 September 2006): The International and Domestic Politics of Election
ManipulationPrepared for presentation at the Annual Meeting of the American Political
Science Association, Philadelphia, PA.
DPMF (Development Policy Management Forum): (December 2002): Report of the Conference
on: “The Challenges of Globalization in Africa: What Role for Civil Society and Other
The Economist (5 February 2009): “A row over human rights: The government says HumanRights
Watch has got it wrong. Really?”.
The Economist (3 April 2008): “Ethiopia’s Relations with America”.
Edwards, M. and Hulme, D. (eds) (1995): Non-Governmental Organisations: Performance and
Accountability: Beyond the Magic Bullet. London: Save the Children Fund, UK.
Eisenman, Joshua and Joshua Kuriantzick (May 2006): “China’s Africa Strategy”, In: Current History,
vol. 105, Issue 691, pp. 219-224, American Foreign Policy Council.
Eizenstat, Stuart E. (2004): “Non governmental organizations as the Fifth State,” Seton Hall Journal
of Diplomacy and International Relations.
EMF (2 April 2009): “Thousands of Ethiopians protest in London”.
EMF (15 May 2009): “’Regime tapping phone’, telecom employee warns”.
EMFA (Ethiopian Ministry of Foreign Affairs) (6-3-2009): “Ethiopia and US Relations”.
ERIS (Electoral Reform International Services): “2005 Ethiopian national elections. Joint
International Donor Election Support Programme. , (Accessed
14 January 2007).
Ethioguardian (10 November 2008): „Hilton deputy manager, OFDM party secretary in custody”.
The Ethiopian Herald (18 August 2005): “Somali elections: ERIS funds candidates’ Campaigning,”
LXI (293).
The Ethiopian Herald (26 July 2005): “Somali state chief calls on public to register for upcoming
election. Training offered for election executives,” LXI (273).
Ethiopian Forum for Political Civility (Ethio-Civility) (Pal Talk) (28 May 2007), (Audio).
Ethiopian Review (June 2009): “Interview with President Isaias Afeworki” (Video).
Eviatar, Daphne (7 November 2004): “Spend $ 150 Billion per year to cure world poverty”, New
York Times.
Financial Times (27 August 2008): “Transcript: FT Interview with Meles Zenawi”
“First Yara Prize awarded to Meles Zenawi.” Yara Foundation, http:// Yara.com
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Florini, Ann M. (ed.) (2000): “Lessons Learned”, in: The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil
Society, 213.
Florini, Ann (14 March 2000): Transparency and civil society project, Carnegie endowment for
international peace, transnational civil society networks, managing global issues seminar
Foley, M. and Edwards, B. (1996): ‘The Paradox of Civil Society’, Journal of Democracy 7 (3), pp. 35-
Forum on Africa-China Cooperation (2005-03-22): “African Countries Supporting China on the
Adoption of the Anti-Secession Law“ http://www.focac.org/eng/zt/asl/t188411.htm,
(Accessed 16.06.2009).
Frot, Emmanuel (n.d): “A comment on Dambisa Moyo’s ‘Dead Aid’“, Stockholm Institute of
Transition Economics (SITE) at the Stockholm School of Economics.
Gebru Asrat (20 September 2008): Speech delivered by Arena Chairman Ato Gebru Asrat on
September 20, 2008 in Washington, DC.
(Accessed 22
September 2008).
Geisler, Gisela (1993): ‘Fair? What Has Fairness Got to Do with It? Vagaries of Election
Observations and Democratic Standards’, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol.31, No.4,
Genocide Watch: The International Campaign to End Genocide (23 March 2009): “An Open
Letter to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Justice Navanathem
German-Foreign-Policy.com (2008/06/26):“Human Rights in Africa (I)” (Accessed 05.06.2009).
German-Foreign-Policy.com (2005-05-18): “Key Positions”, (Accessed
Gyimah, Boadi, E. (2001): ‘A Peaceful Turnover in Ghana’, Journal of Democracy 12 (2).
Goldsmith, Arthur (2001): “Donors, Dictators, and Democrats in Africa,” Journal of Modern African
Studies, Vol. 39(3): pp. 411-436.
Gombya, Henry (2 April 2009): “G20 Closes with $1 Trillion Pledge”, The Black Star News.
Gorfu, G.E. (29 may 2009): The Need for Paradigm Change-I
(Accessed 4 June 2009).
The Guardian (7 October 2006): “The Dragon and Darfur”
The Guardian (14 August 2005): “Ethiopia’s Digital dream”.
The Guardian (25 January 2008): “To impose democracy from outside is inherently undemocratic”.
The Guardian (12 June 2005): “$55bn Africa Debt Deal ‘a Victory for Millions.’”
The Guardian (19 October 2006): “Ethiopian government blocks report of massacre by its forces”.
Harbeson, John W. (1999): “Rethinking Democratic Transitions: Lessons from Eastern and
Southern Africa”, in Richard Joseph (ed.), State, Conflict, and Democracy in Africa, Boulder, CO
and London: Lynne Rienner, pp.39–55.
Harbeson, John W. (1996):“Elections and Democratization in Post-Mengistu Ethiopia.” Report
prepared for the United States Agency for International Development project on Elections in War-Torn
Societies. PN-ABZ-710.
Harman, Danna (30 September 2003): “Africa’s New class of power players”, The Christian
Science Monitor
Hearn, Julie (1999): Foreign Aid, Democratization and Civil Society in Africa: A Study of South
Africa, Ghana and Uganda: Discussion Paper 368, Institute of Development Studies.
The Herald (UK) (04 November 2005): “UK urges inquiry into pools violence in Capital.”
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Hoffman, Stanley (1999): “The Political Ethics of International Relations”. In: Ethics and
International Affairs: A Reader, ed. Joel H. Rosental. Washington, DC: Georgetown
University Press.
Howden, Daniel (28 June 2009): “New blood for Ethiopia?”, Independent Online.
Howell, J. and Pearce, J. (2001): Civil Society and Development: A Critical Exploration. Boulder,
CO: Lynne Rienner.
Hyde, Susan Dayton and Emily Beaulieu (2004): Election Boycotts, Election Observers, and
Competition: Do international election observers give parties an incentive to boycott
elections? Prepared for delivery at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the American Political
Science Association, September 2 - September 5, 2004.
IDEA (International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance) (1999): The future of
International Electoral Observation: Lessons Learned and Recommendations. Conference Report.
Imiru Zeleke (21 November 2005),
(Accessed 10 December 2005).
IDPM (4 April 2001): “Globalization and its Discontents: How to fix what’s Not Working.” Joseph
Stiglitz Lecture, University of Manchester, UK

The Independent (3 May 2006): “Ethiopia condemned as opposition leaders are put on trial for
The Independent (4 February 2000): “Former Ethiopian faces prison for corruption“
The Independent (10 June 2005): “We must learn the lessons of Zimbabwe and Ethiopia”.
IOL (Independent on Line) (2005-11-16): “World bank urges Ethiopia to act on crisis”.
ION (The Indian Ocean Newsletter) (23-06-2001): “Corruption campaign may back fire”, No. 955.
IRIN (UN Integrated Regional Information Networks) (30 December 2005): “Halt in budget
support will affect the poor, Minister says.”
ITU (International Telecommunication Union) (2009): Measuring the Information Society: The
ICT Development Index, Geneva.
Jenkins, Rob (2001): “Mistaking “Governance” for “Politics”: Foreign Aid, Democracy and the
Construction of Civil Society” in Sudipta Kaviraj and Sunil Khilnani (eds.), Civil Society:
History and Possibilities, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 250-68.
Joseph, Richard (1997): ‘Democratization in Africa after 1989: Comparative and Theoretical
Perspectives’, Comparative Politics, Vol.29, No.3, pp.363–82.
Joseph, Richard, 1999, ‘The Reconfiguration of Power in Late Twentieth-Century Africa’, in
Richard Joseph (ed.), State, Conflict, and Democracy in Africa, Boulder, CO and London: Lynne
Rienner, pp.57–80.
KAEUP (Kinijit All Ethiopia Unity Party) (26 March 2009): “Qoyita with Eng. Hailu Shawel on the
opening of Kaeup.org, part 1” (Audio).
Kalyvitis, Sarantis C., and Irene Vlachaki (2008): “More aid, less democracy? An Empirical
Examination of the Relationship between Foreign and the Democratization of Recipients.”
Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1002433
Karume, Shumbana (2003): “Summary Paper on Democratic Assistance”, SADC Insight I, pp. 1-5.
Kausch, Kristina, David Mathieson, Iren Menendez, Richard Youngs, Jeroen de Zeeuw (2006):
Survey of European Democracy promotion policies 2000-2006, Richard Youngs (ed.), Madrid:
Kelsall, T. (2003): ‘Governance, Democracy and Recent Political Struggles in Mainland Tanzania’,
Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 41 (2): 55-82.
Keohane, Robert O.(1993): “Institutional Theory and the Realist Challenge After the Cold War”.
In: Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, ed. David. A.Baldwin, New York.
Columbia University Press.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Knack, Stephen (2004): “Does Foreign Aid Promote Democracy”, International Studies Quarterly
48(1): 251-266.
Lane, David (2006): “Civil Society formation and Accountability in the New post-Socialist EU
Member States”, in: Participation of Civil Society in New Modes of Governance. The Case of the New
EU Member States. Heiko Pleines (Ed.), No.74, part 2: Questions of Accountability,
Forschingsstelle Osteuropa an der Universität Bremen. Pp. 7-21.
Las Vegas Sun (5 March 2009): “ICC warrant raises questions on leaders targeted”.
Lawson, A. and Rakner, L. (2005): ‘Understanding Patterns of Accountability in Tanzania’. Final
Synthesis Report commissioned by the Governance Working Group of the Development
Partners to Tanzania. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute; Oxford: Oxford Policy
Management and Dar es Salaam: Repoa.
Lawson, Letitia (1999):“External Democracy promotion in Africa; Another false start?”
Commonwealth and comparative politics, 37(1), pp.1-30.
Leicht, Lotte (18.02.2009): “EU should not tolerate Ethiopia's repression”, European Voice.
Lekvall, Ann (2009-05-13): “Democracy and aid: the missing links”, IDEA.
Les nouvelles d’Addis (29 March 2006): “Dawud Ibsa Ayana: Charman of the Oromo Liberation
Lidetu Ayallew (1998 EC): “Yearem Erisha” (“Weed Farm”), Addis Ababa: Progress Printing Press.
Lindberg, S. (2003): ‘It's Our Time to Chop: Do Elections in Africa Feed Neo-patrimonialism
rather than Counteract it?’, Democratization 10 (2): 121-41.
Lipset, Seymour Martin (1959): “Some Social Requistes of Democracy: Economic Development
and Political Legitimacy”, American Political Science Review, 53(1), 69-105.
Lipson, Charles (1993): “International cooperation in Economic and Security Affairs”. In:
Neorealism and Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, ed. David A. Baldwin, New York:
Columbia University press.
Lundy, Sarah (March 2004): “The Price Tag on Promoting democracy abroad: US: Foreign Aid and
Military intervention”, WPSA 2004 proceeding.
Mail & Guardian online (19 December 2004): “All Eyes are on Ethiopia’s Poll Next Year.”
Manning, C. (2005) ‘Conflict Management and Elite Habituation in Post-war Democracy: The
Caseof Mozambique’, in L. Villalon and P. Von Doepp (eds), The Fate of Africa’s Democratic
Experiments. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
Mathieson, David and Richard Youngs (December 2006): Democracy Promotion and the
European Left: Ambivalence Confused? FRIDE, Working Paper 29, Madrid
Mathisen, Harald and Lars Svasand (2002): Funding political parties in emerging African democracies: What
role for Norway? Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute-Development Studies and Human Rights.
McGill, Doug (19 July 2004): The New Republic Online.
McGregor, Andrew (5 June 2007): “Ethiopia faces Ethnic fallout from Somalia Intervention”,
Terrorism focus, Vol. 4, Issue 17
McLaughlin, Abraham (07 November 2005): “In Africa, are ‘donor darlings’ stifling democracy?”
The Christian Science Monitor.
McLaughlin, Abraham (20 October 2005): “Tensions rise in Horn of Africa”, The Christian Science
McLure, Jason (22 January 2008): “Ethiopia’s Dirty War”, Newsweek.
McLure, Janson (22 June 2009): “Ethiopia says World Bank to blame for power blackouts
(update1)”, Bloomburg.com.
McMahon, Edward R. (2002): “The Impact of U.S Democracy Aid and Governance Assistance in
Africa: Benin case study. Paper prepared for presentation at American Political Association
meeting in Boston, Massachusetts, August 29-Sep. 1, 2002.
Meernik, James (1996): “United States Military Interventions and the promotion of Democracy”,
Journal of Peace Research, 33(4): 391-402.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Merloe, Pat (April 1999): “Lessons learned and challenges Facing International Election
Monitoring.” National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI). Washington.
Merera Gudina (2003): Ethiopia: Competing Ethnic Nationalisms and the Quest for Democracy, 1960-2000.
Addis Ababa: Chamber Printing Press.
MFAE (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ethiopia) (21 November 2008): “Terrorism, double
standards and the international community”.
Michalski, Anna (February 2009): “Democracy Assistance and Promotion,” Transatlantic Policy
Monsters and Critics (27 November 2005): “Detained Ethiopian opposition leaders are ‘political
Moyo, Dambisa (2009): Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There is a Better Way for Africa,
Allen Lane
Naim, Moises (March/April 2007): “Rogue Aid”, in: Foreign Policy.
National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDIA) and the African American Institute
(AAI) (1992): An Evaluation of the June 21, 1992 Elections in Ethiopia.
NEBE (National Election Board of Ethiopia) (25 February 2005): “The Code of Conduct for
International Election Observers.”
NED (8 June 2006): “The Backlash against democracy assistance”, a report prepared by the
National Endowment for democracy for Senator Richard G. Lugar Chairman, committee
on foreign Relations, United States Senate
Negussay Ayele (12 October 2001): “EPLF/TPLF and Ethiopia-Eritrea Today: Sow the Wind,
Reap the Whirlwind”,
(Accessed 20.06.2009).
Negussay Ayele (2 September 2005): Norway, Ethiopia and “Yara Foundation”.
http://www.ethiomedia.com/fastpress/yara_scandal.pdf (Accessed 5 September 2005).
New Internationalist (March 2004): “IMF-World Bank /IMF failure”. Issue 365.
The New York Times (5 March 2009): “ICC warrant raises questions on leaders targeted”.
The New York Times (14 November 2005): “Ethiopia’s capital, once promising, finds itself in
The New York Times (29 May 1991): “Ethiopian Seeks to Form Temporary Government”.
The New York Times (19 October 2006): “Inquiry says Ethiopian troops killed 193 in ballot
protests in ‘05”.
Newsweek (10 April 2008): “Stuck in Somalia”.
Newsweek (20 April 2009): “With a friend like this: Ethiopia was supposed to help America in the
war on terror. But it’s only made matters worse”.
Nielson, Richard and Daniel Nielson (2008): “Lending Democracy: How governance aid may affect
freedom”, paper prepared for delivery at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American
Political Science Association, August 28-31, 2008.
ODI (Overseas Development Institute) (20 January 2006): Donors face tough choices in Ethiopia
(Accessed 10/5/2008)
Okuku, Jurma Anthony (2002): “Civil Society and the Democratization Process in Kenya and
Uganda: A Comparative Analysis of the Contribution of the Church and NGOs,” in:
African Journal of Political Science, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 81-97.
Ottaway, Marina (2005): “Civil Society,” in: Politics in the Developing World, Burnell, Peter and Vicky
Randall (eds), Chapter 8, pp. 121-135.
Owen, John (2002): “The Foreign Imposition of Domestic Institutions”, International Organization,
56(2): 375-409.
Peceny, Mark (1999): Democracy at the Point of Bayonets, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State
University Press.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
People’s Daily (24 July 2001): “Ethiopia’s ruling OPDO suspends secretary-general”.
People’s Daily online (15 August 2007): “Ethiopian police foil latest terror attempt”.
People’s Daily online (17 December 2007): “Ethiopia’s opposition leaders face treason charges”.
Pereira, Lucilia (October 2006): “Free and Fair: The Politicization of Election Monitoring Reports”.
M.A. Thesis, Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.
Pflanz, Mike (27 June 2005): “Ethiopia’s Messy Political reform.” The Christian Science Monitor.
Price, David (January 2009): “Global democracy promotion: Seven lessons for the new
administration”, The Washington Quarterly 32 (1), pp. 159-170.
Pinto-Duchhinsky, Michael (1997): “The Rise of Political Aid, “Consolidating the Third Wave
Democracies: Regional Challenges, (ed). Larry Diamond. Baltimore: John Hopkins University
Pinto-Duschinsky, Michael (2002): Financing politics: A Global View, Journal of Democracy, 13 (4),
PINR (25 October 2005): ''Intelligence Brief: Ethiopia''.
Prendergast, John, and Mark Duffield (1998): “Liberation politics in Ethiopia and Eritrea”, Civil
War in Africa: Roots and Resolution, Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthews (Eds.). Toronto,
pp. 35-52.
Rakner, Lise and Alina Rocha Menocal (August 2007): “Democratization’s Third Wave and the
Challenges of Democratic Deepening: Assessing International Democracy Assistance and
Lessons Learned”, Working paper 1, Research project (RP-05-GG) of the Advisory Board
for Irish Aid, Good Governance, Aid Modalities and Poverty Reduction: Linkages to the
Millenium Development Goals and Implications for Irish Aid.
Rakner, Lise and Lars Svàsand (2002): Multi party elections in Africa’s new democracies. Bergen: Chr.
Michelsen Institute.
Reilly, Benjamin (June 2003): “International Electoral Assistance: A Review of Donor Activities
and Lessons Learned”, Working paper 17, Netherlands Institute of International Relations
‘Clingendael’ Conflict Research Unit. The Hague
Remmer, Karen (1995): “New Theoretical Perspectives on Democratization,” Comparative Politics,
Vol. 28(1): pp. 103-22.
The Reporter (17 June 2009): “Federal firdbetoch bedagnoch ena bechilot hintsawoch etiret techegrewal”
(“Federal courts suffer from lack of judges and court rooms”).
The Reporter (07 March 2009): “IMF cuts government’s GDP forecast by half”.
The Reporter (22 March 2009): “Meles yebroadcast mediaw yetirat chigir endalebet amenu:besomalia yedersewin
kisara megletse leparlamaw yemitekim aymeslegnm alu” (“Meles admitted the quality problem of
the broadcasting media: Knowing the causality in Somalia is not useful to the parliament”).
The Reporter (22 March 2009a): “Teklai minister Meles yerasachewn yeeconomy yebet sira eyeseru alem
yeeconomy yebet sirawn endisera yiwotwtu” (“Prime Minister Meles do your economy homework
and urge the world to do the economy assignment”).
The Reporter (11 March 2009b): “Yeato Hailu Shawel meglecha awozagebe” (“HailuShawel’s Press
Statement Created Controversy”).
Reuters (01 May 2007): “Ethiopia blocks opposition website-Watch dog”
Reuters (28 January 2006): “Ethiopia can manage even if aid cut-Meles”.
Reuters (02 May 2005): “Ethiopia expects 320 foreign observers at election.”
Reuters (05 May 2009): “Ethiopia opposition says anti-govt plot invented”.
Reuters (9 April 2007): “Ethiopia treason trial judges frees 25 journalists”.
Reuters (6 April 2007): “EU looks at potential war crimes by Somalia, Ethiopia”.
Reuters (8 October 2005): “Talks on ending Ethiopia tension fail-opposition”.
RFS (Reporters without borders) (29 May 2006): “Three more sites unaccessable, government
denies being involved”.
RFS (Reporters without borders) (23-05-2006): “Opposition websites and blogs go down but is it
censorship or a technical glitch?”.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Robinson, M. (1996): 'The role of aid donors in strengthening civil society' in A. Clayton (ed.)
NGOs, Civil Society and the State: Building Democracy in Transitional Societies, Oxford: INTRAC.
Robinson, Mark and Steven Friedman (April 2005): “Civil Society, demonstration and foreign aid in
Africa” IDS Discussion paper 383. Institute of development studies, Brighton.
Saffu, Yaw (2003): “The Funding of Political Parties and Election and Campaigns in Africa”.
Funding of Political Parties and Election Campaigns, IDEA, Hand book Series, Reginald Austin
and Maja Tjernstrom (eds.), pp. 21-29.
Salih, Mohamed, and Per Nordlund (2007): Political Parties in Africa: Challenges for Sustained Multiparty
Democracy, Africa Regional Report Based on Research and Dialogue with Political Parties, IDEA.
Samuel Assefa (28 September 2007): “Terrorism double standard? The Washington Times.
Sanders, Edmund (20 February 2006): Los Angeles Times. “Africa’s ‘New Generation’ Likened to
Seid Hassan (5 April 2009): “In defense of the Ethiopian coffee exporters”, Murray State
Seid Hassan (16 June 2008): “Is Ethiopia really enjoying economic development?” Murray State
Seid Hassan (6 September 2008): “Who is benefiting from the flood of construction projects in
Ethiopia?”, Murray State University.
Shinn, David Hamilton, and Thomas P. Ofcansky (2004): Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia; Lanham:
Rowman and Littelfield Pub Inc.
SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) (July 2002): The Political
Institutions: Parties, Elections and Parliaments. Department for Democracy and Social
Development, Division for Democratic Governance.
Siegle, Joseph (June 2007): “Effective Aid Strategies to Support Democracy in Africa”, Paper
Prepared for the “Africa beyond Aid” conference, June 24-26, Brussels, Belgium, hosted by
Brenthurst Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, and DANIDA.
Sisk, Timothy D. (2008):“Elections in fragile states: Between Voice and Violence”, paper prepared
for the International studies Association Annual meeting, San Francisco, California, March
24-28, 2008.
Stiglitz, Joseph (June 2007): “Effective Aid Strategies to Support Democracy in Africa, “Paper
Prepared for the “Africa Beyond Aid” conference, June 24-26, Brussels Belgium, hosted by
Brenthurst Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, and DANIDA.
Steele, Carie A. and James M. Scott (2005): “Assisting Democrats or Resisting Dictators?: The
Nature and Impact of Democracy Support through the U.S. Agency for International
Development and the National Endowment for Democracy, 1987-2002”. Paper Presented
at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, Honolulu Hawaii, March 1-
5, 2005.
Stokke, Olav (1995): “Aid and Political Conditionality”, in Olav Stokke, eds, Aid and Political
Conditionality, London: Frank Cass.
Sudan Tribune (15 May 2005): “Ethiopia PM bans demonstration in Addis Ababa”.
Sudan Tribune (25 June 2009): “Ethiopia position toward Somalia could change-Meles”.
Sudan Tribune (9 November 2005): “Ethiopians urges US, Britain to help curb violence”.
Sudan Tribune (5 October 2005): “Ethiopian opposition says dialogue initiated by mediators not
Sudan Tribune (30 December 2005): “EU freezes aid to Ethiopia over political situation.“
Sudan Tribune (2 December 2008): “Ethiopia: Oromo oppositions accuse intelligence service,
federal police of ‘defamation’”.
Sudan Tribune (22 January 2006): “Irish government rejects calls to cut off aid to Ethiopia.“
Sudan Tribune (29 May 2008): “Oromo Liberation Front denies responsibility for last week blast in
Addis Ababa”.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
Tecola W. Hagos (4 June 2009): “The Liberation of Ethiopia is at Hand”
http://www.tecolahagos.com/liberation_ethiopia.htm (Accessed 4 June 2009).
Tecola W. Hagos (28 July 2005): “The Yara Prize and Corruption: Meles Zenawi with aPurse of
Two Hundred Thousand Dollars Only? Why not a Million Dollars?”
http://www.tecolahagos.com (Accessed 29 July 2005).
Tecola W. Hagos (18 June 2009): “Shame on you Sebhat Nega” (Editorial).
http://www.tecolahagos.com (Accessed 19 June 2009).
The Telegraph (16 December 2005): “Protesters killed and 40,000 jailed as Blair’s friend quells
Tendulkar, D.G. (1961): Mahatma: Life of Mohandas Karamachand Gandhi, Vol. 3, 1930-34, Bombay:
The Times of India Press.
Tesfaye Gebreab (2001EC): “Yegazetegnaw Mastawosha” (“The Journalist’s Memoir”).Cape Town.
Thomson, Alex (2006): “Counterbalancing the African State? Should the Concept of CivilSociety
Still Feature Prominently in Donor Policy Thinking?” In: Journal of Sustainable Development in
Africa, vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 273-287.
Times Online (04 November 2005): “Anger over £30m British aid as nation slides towards
Times online (02 November 2005):”23 killed in Ethiopia election violence”.
Times online (03 November 2005): “Blair ally accused of poll killings”.
Times online (13 February 2006): “Blair turns his back on friend who failed him”.
TI Source Book (2000): “Civil Society”.
Tomlinson, Chris (13 May 2005): “Campaigning wraps up in Ethiopia.” Mail & Guardian Online.
The TPLF manifesto of February 1976-The Republic of Greater Tigray”
Tshitereke, Clarence (November 2002): “Securing democracy: Party finance and party donationsthe
South African Challenge” Institute for Security Studies, ISS paper 63.
UNPO (27 November 2008): “Oromo: Arrests target critics of Zenaw’s regime”.
United Nations (UN) (27 October 2005): Declaration of Principles for International Election
Observation and Code of Conduct for International Election Observers, New York.
USAID/Ethiopia (16 June 2005): Annual Report FY 2005.
USAID (April 1999): USAID Political Party Development Assistance. Technical Publication Series,
Office of Democracy and Governance, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict, and Humanitarian
Assistance, U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington.
U.S. Department of State (25 February 2009): “2008 Human Rights Reports Ethiopia”.
US Embassy in Ethiopia. “Statement by Ambassador Vicki Huddleston, Charge D’Affaires of the
U.S. Embassy, and Ambassador Bob Dewar, Ambassador of the United Kingdom.
Van Hüllen, Vera and Andrea Stahn (2007): Why semi-authoritarian regimes may be more
troublesome than autocracies: US and EU strategies of democracy promotion in the
Mediteranean and the Newly Independent States”, paper prepared for the 2007 Annual
meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 30th September 2nd, 2007.
Van Rooy, I. (ed) (1998): Civil Society and the Aid Industry: The Politics and Promise. London: Earthscan.
VEDR (Voice of Ethiopian Democratic Room) (6 December 2008): “Interview with Eng. Hailu
Shawel” (Pal Talk) (Audio).
VOA (15 April 2009): “Ethiopia dismisses calls for UN Investigation of rights abuses”.
VOA (22 March 2006): “Ethiopia drops treason, genocide charges against VOA journalists, 13
VOA (06 May 2009): “Ethiopia opposition demands probe of anti-government plots“.
VOA (16 May 2006): “Former Top US official says situation in Ethiopia is not a happy one”.
VOA (02 May 2009): “Leader of Ethiopian political pressure group defends their objectives”.
VOA (24 May 2006): “Press Group Says Ethiopia Censor Internet”.
Teshome, W. (2013). Democracy promotion and Western aid to Africa: Lessons from Ethiopia (1991-2012). International
Journal of Human Sciences, 10(1), 993-1049.
VOA (04 April 2007): “Report says war on terror violating human rights in Kenya, Somalia,
The Washington Times (9 July 2005).
The Washington Times (18 October 2006): “Ethiopian government blocks report of massacre by
its forces”.
Wachter, Paul (14 February 2007): “Bush’s Somalia strategy enables an Ethiopian despot,” The
Whelan, Fredrick G. (2004): Hume and Machiavelli: Political Realism and Liberal Thoughts. Boston:
Lexington Books.
Wondwosen Teshome (2008a): “Ethnicity and political parties in Africa: The case of ethnic-based
parties in Ethiopia”, In: The Journal of International Social Research, vol.1, Issue 5, pp.780-809.
Wondwosen Teshome (2008b): “International election observers in Africa: The case of Ethiopia.”
In: Alternatives: Turkish Journal of International Relations, vol. 7, no.1, pp. 119-137.
Wondwosen Teshome (2009a): “Civil society and democratization in Africa: The role of the civil
society in the 2005 election in Ethiopia,” in: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2): 80-95.
Wondwosen Teshome (2009b): “Media and multi-party elections in Africa: The case of Ethiopia”,
in: International Journal of Human Sciences, vol. 6, Issue 1, pp. 84-112.
Wondwosen Teshome (2009c): “Opposition parties and the politics of opposition in Africa: A
critical analysis”, in: International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-15.
Wondwosen Teshome (2009d): “Ethiopian opposition political parties and rebel fronts: past and
present”, International Journal of Social Sciences, vol, 4, no. 1, pp.60-68.
Wondwosen Teshome (2009e): “Political finance in Africa: Ethiopia as a case study”, in:
International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(2):119-132.
Wondwosen Teshome and Jerusalem Negash (2008):“The anti-terror war in Somalia: Somali
women’s multifaceted role in armed conflict.” In: Österreichische Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft
(ÖZP) (Austrian Journal of Political Sciences), vol. 2. pp. 196-214.
Wondwosen Teshome and Jan Záhořík (2008): “Federalism in Africa: The case of ethnic-based
federalism in Ethiopia”, in: International Journal of Human Sciences, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 1-39.
Wrong, Michela (14 November 2005): “Michela Wrong asks why Blair backs a brutal regime: A
regime hailed as progressive by Tony Blair has shot women and children in the streets and
detained thousands.”New Statesman.
Yeroo Jimma Times (11-11-2008): “Ethiopia: Yeroo Interview with EU MP Ana Gomes.”
Young, John (2004): ‘Post-Civil War Transitions in Ethiopia’, in Taisier M. Ali and Robert O.
Matthews (eds.), Durable Peace: Challenges for Peace building in Africa, Toronto, Buffalo, NY and
London: University of Toronto Press, pp.19–60.
Yeginbot 7 Dimts (4 Sene/June 2001EC): “Beageritu wust bekonstruction sera yetesemaru balehabtoch
lewoyane tamagnet yalachew yetigray tewolajoch endehonu tegeletse” (“Construction works in the
country is owned by ethnic Tigreans loyal to the TPLF”), No. 56.
Youngs, Richard (2006) ‘Conceptualizing the EU as a Promoter of Democracy’, in R. Youngs (ed.),
The European Union and the Promotion of Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Youngs, Richard (2008a): “Is European Democracy Promotion on the Wane” CEPs Working
Document No.292/May 2008.
Youngs, Richard (2008b): “Trends in Democracy assistance: What has Europe been doing?” Journal
of Democracy, Vol.19, no.2, April pp. 160-169.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com