Social support, social comparison, and anger

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Author NameUniversity of AuthorFaculty of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between social support, social comparison, anger and anger expression. Participants were 258 high school students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Multidimensional Scale for Social Support, the Social Comparison Scale, and the State-Trait Anger Scale. The hypothesis model was tested by correlational analysis. According to results; social support was related positively to social comparison. Also social comparison was related negatively to anger in and anger out and positively to anger control. Results were discussed in the light of literature.



Albrecht, T. L., & Adelman, M. B. (1987). Communicating social support: A theoretical
perspective. In T. L. Albrecht, & M. B. Adelman (Eds.), Communicating social support
(pp. 18–39). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Allan, S, & Gilbert, P. (1995). A social comparison scale: Psychometric properties and
relationship to psychopathology. Personality and Individual Differences, 19, 293–299.
Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., & Sroufe, L. A. (2007). Direct social support for young high risk
children: relations with behavioral and emotional outcomes across time. Journal of
Abnormal Child Psychololgy, 35, 443e457.
Berry, J.W., & Worthington Jr., E. L. (2001). Forgivingness, relationship quality, stress
while imagining relationship events, and physical and mental health. Journal of
Counseling Psychology, 48, 447–455.
Đskender, M. & Tanrıkulu, T. (2010). Social support, social comparison and anger. International Journal of
Human Sciences [Online]. 7:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en
Berr y, J. W., Worthington , E .L ., O'Connor, L .E ., Parrott, L., & Wade, N.G. (2005).
Forgivingness, vengeful rumination, and affective traits . Journal of Personality, 73, (1),
83 –225.
Bodenhausen, G. V. (1993). Emotions, arousal and stereotypic judgments: A heuristic model
of affect and stereotyping. In D. M. Mackie & D . L . Hamilton (Eds.). Affect, cognition
and stereotyping: Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 13–38). New York:
Academic Press.
Buunk, A. P., Gibbons, F. X. (2007) Social comparison: The end of a theory and the
emergence of a Weld.Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102, 3–
Chesney, M. A., & Rosenman, R. H. (1985). Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and
behavioral disorders. New York: Hemisphere/McGraw-Hill.
Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support and the buffering hypothesis.
Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.
Clark, M. L. (1991). Social identity, peer relations, and academic competence of African–
American adolescents. Education and Urban Society, 24, 41–52.
Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social-information
processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 72–
Crosnoe, R., & Elder, G. H. J. (2004). From childhood to the later years: pathways of human
development. Research on Aging, 26, 623-654.
Dahlen, E. R., & Martin, R. C. (2005). The experience, expression, and control of anger in
perceived social support. Personality and Individual Differences, 39 , 391–401.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1992). Trait Anger: Theory, findings, and implications. In C. D.
Spielberger & J . N . Butcher (Eds.). Advances in Personality Assessment (Vol. 9, pp.
177–201). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Deffenbacher, J. L. (1993). General anger: Characteristics and clinical implications.
Psicologia Conductual, 1, 49–67.
Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., Lynch, R. S., & Morris, C. D. (1996). The expression of
anger and its consequences. Behavior Research and Theraphy, 34(7), 575–590.
Deffenbacher, J. L., Lynch, R. S., Oetting, E. R., & Kemper, C. C. (1996). Anger reduction
in early adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43, 149–157.
Đskender, M. & Tanrıkulu, T. (2010). Social support, social comparison and anger. International Journal of
Human Sciences [Online]. 7:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en
Deffenbacher, J. L., Oetting, E. R., Thwaites, G. R., Lynch, R. S., Baker, D. A., Thaker, S.,
& Eisworth-Cox, L. (1996). State-Trait anger theoryand theutility oftheTrait Anger
Scale. Journa lof Counselling psychology, 43(2), 131–148.
Dolbier, C. L., & Steinhardt, M. A. (2000). The development and validation of the Sense of
Support Scale. Behavioral Medicine, 25, 169–179.
Eker, D., & Arkar, H. (1995). Perceived social support: Psychometric properties of the
MSPSS in normal and pathological groups in a developing country. Social Psychiatry
and Psychiatric Epidemiology, (30), 121–126.
Engebretson, T. O., Matthews, K. A., & Scheier, M. F. (1989). Relations between anger
expression and cardiovascular reactivity: reconciling inconsistent findings through a
matching hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 513–521.
Everson, S. A., Goldberg, D. E., Kaplan, G. A., Julkunen, J., & Solonen, J. T. (1998). Anger
expression and incident hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 730–735.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117–
Finney, M. L., Stoney, C. M., & Engebretson, T. O. (2002). Hostility and anger expression in
African American and European American men is associated with cardiovascular and
lipid reactivity. Psychophysiology, 39, 340–349.
Gilbert, P., Goss, K. & Allan, S. (1996). Parental representations, shame, interpersonal
problems, and vulnerability to psychopathology. Clinical Psychology and
Psychotherapy, 3, (l), 23-34.
Glazer, Sharon (2006). Social support across cultures. International Journal of Intercultural
Relations, 30, 605–622.
Groer, M., Thomas, S., Droppleman, P., & Younger, M. (1994). Longitudinal study of
adolescent blood pressure, health habits, stress and anger. Health Values, 18, 25–33.
Grunbaum, J. A., Vernon, S. W., & Clasen, C. M. (1997). The association between anger and
hostility and risk factors for coronary heart disease in children and adolescents: a review.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 19, 179–189.
Hagglund, K. J., Clay, D. L., Frank, R. G., Beck, N. C., Kashani, J. H., Hewett, J., Johnson,
J., Goldstein, D. E., & Cassidy, J. T. (1994). Assessing anger expression in children and
adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 19, 291–304.
Hazebroek, J. F., Howells, K., & Day, A. (2001). Cognitive appraisals associated with high
trait anger. Personality and Individual Differences, 30 , 31–45.
Đskender, M. & Tanrıkulu, T. (2010). Social support, social comparison and anger. International Journal of
Human Sciences [Online]. 7:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en
Heard, H. E. (2007). The family structure trajectory and adolescent school performance:
differential effects by race and ethnicity. Journal of Family Issues, 28, 319e354.
Hobfall, S. E., & Stephens, M. A. P. (1990). Social support during extreme stress:
consequences and intervention. In: B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason, & G. R. Pierce (Eds.),
Social support: an interactional view (pp. 454–481). New York: Wiley.
House, J. S. (1981). Work, stress and social support. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Hupcey, J. E. (1998). Clarifying the social support theory-research linkage. Journal of
Advanced Nursing, 27, 1231–1241.
Kamarck, T. W., Manuck, S. B., & Jennings, JR. (1990). Social support reduces
cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge: a laboratory model. Psychosomatic
Medicine, 52:42–58.
Keiley, M., Lofthouse, N., Bates, J., Dodge, K. A., & Petit, G. (2003). Differential risks of
covarying and pure components in mother and teacher reports of externalizing and
internalizing behavior across ages 5 to 14. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31,
Keppel-Benson, J. M., Ollendick, T. H., & Benson, M. J. (2002). Posttraumatic stress in
children following motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
43(2), 203–212
Kinnunen, M. L., Feldt, T., Kinnunen, U., & Pulkkinen, L. (2008). Self-esteem: An
antecedent or a consequence of social support and psychosomatic symptoms? Crosslagged
associations in adulthood. Journal of Research in Personality, 4,2 333–347.
Lakey, B., & Cohen, S. (2000). Social support theory and measurement. In S. Cohen, L. G.
Underwood, & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A
guide for health and social scientists (pp. 29–52). New York: Oxford University Press.
Lakey, B., & Cassady, P. B. (1990). Cognitive processes in perceived social support. Journal
of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 337–343.
Leventhal, H., Hudson, S., & Robitaille, C. (1997). Social comparison and health: A process
model. In B. P. Buunk, & F. X. Gibbons (Eds.), Health, coping and well-being:
Perspectives from social comparison theory (pp. 411–432). New Jersey: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.
Lindorff, M. (2000). Is it better to perceive than receive? Social support, stress and strain for
managers. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 5, 271–286.
Đskender, M. & Tanrıkulu, T. (2010). Social support, social comparison and anger. International Journal of
Human Sciences [Online]. 7:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en
Martin, R., Wan, C., David, J. P., Wegner, E. L., Olson, B. D., & Watson, D. (1999). Style of
anger expression: Relation to expressivity, personality, and health. Personality and
Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1196–1207.
Modrcin-McCarthy, M. A., Pullen, L., Barnes, A. F., & Alpert, J. (1998). Childhood anger:
so common, yet so misunderstood. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing,
11, 69–77.
Myers, W. C., & Monaco, L. (2000). Anger experience, styles of anger expression, sadistic
personality disorder, and psychopathy in juvenile sexual homicide offenders. Journal of
Forensic Science, 45, 698–701.
Neria, Y., Solomon, Z., & Dekel, R. D. (1998). An eighteen-year follow-up study of Israeli
prisoners of war and combat veterans. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186
(3), 174–182.
Özer, A. K. (1994). Sürekli Öfke ve Öfke Đfadesi Tarzı Ölçekleri Ön Çalısması. Psikoloji
Dergisi, 9 (31), 26-35.
Sarason, I. G., Pierce, G. R., & Sarason, B. R. (1990). Social support and interactional
processes: A triadic hypothesis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 495–
Schützwohl, M., Maercker, A., & Manz, R. (1999). In A. Maercker, M. Schützwohl, & Z.
Solomon (Eds.), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Lifespan Developmental
Perspective (pp. 201–220). Washington: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.
Seybold, K.S., Hill, P.D. , Neumann , J.K., & Chi, D.S. (2001). Physiological and
psychologi- cal correlates of forgiveness . Journal of Psychology and Christianity 20,
Siegman, A. W. (1993). Cardiovascular consequences of expressing, experiencing, and
repressing anger. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 539–569.
Spielberger, C. D., Jacobs, G. A., Russell, S. F., &Crane, R. J. (1983). Assessment of anger:
the state-trait anger scale. In J. N. Butcher, & C. D. Spielberger, Advances in personality
assessment (Vol.2) (pp. 159–187). Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum.
Suls, J. & Wills, T. A. (1991). Social comparison: contemporary theory and research. New
York: Erlbaum.
Suter, J. M., Byrne, M. K., Byrne, S., Howells, K., & Day, A. (2002) Anger in prisoners:
Women are different from men. Personality and Individual Differences,32, 1087–1100.
Đskender, M. & Tanrıkulu, T. (2010). Social support, social comparison and anger. International Journal of
Human Sciences [Online]. 7:1. Available: http://www.insanbilimleri.com/en
Swallow, S. R. & Kuiper, N. A. (1988). Social comparison and negative self evaluation: An
application to depression, Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 55-76.
Sahin, N.H., Durak, A. ve Sahin, N., (1993), Sosyal Karsılastırma Ölçegi: Bilissel-
Davranısçı Terapilerde Degerlendirme. Ankara, Türk Psikologlar Dernegi Yayınları.
Thompson, N. J., & Morris, R. D. (1994). Predicting injury risk in adolescent football
players: the importance of psychological variables. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 19,
Tiedens, L. Z. (2001). The effect of anger on the hostile inferences of aggressive and non
aggressive people: Specific emotions, cognitive processing and chronic accessibility.
Motivation and Emotion, 25, 233–251.
Williams, L., O’Connor, R.C., Howard, S., Hughes, B. M., Johnston, D. W., Hay, J. L.,
O’Connor, D. B., Lewis, C. A., Ferguson, E., Sheehy, N., Grealy, M. A., & O’Carroll,
R. E. (2008).Type-D personality mechanisms of effect: The role of health-related
behavior and social support. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64, 63– 69.
Wolf, K. A., & Foshee, V. A. (2003). Family violence, anger expression styles, and
adolescent dating violence. Journal of Family Violence, 18 , 309–316.
Wood, J. V. (1989). Theory and research concerning social comparisons of personal
attributes. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 231-248.
Yang, B., & Clum, G. A. (1994). Life stress, social support, andproblem -solving skills
predictive of depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and suicide ideation in an Asian
student population: a test of a model. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 24, 127–
Young, J. F., Berenson, K., Cohen, P., & Garcia, J. (2005). The role of parent and peer
support in predicting adolescent depression: A longitudinal community study. Journal of
Research on Adolescence, 15, 407e423.
Zell, E., Alicke, M. D. (2009). Self-evaluative effects of temporal and social comparison.
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 223–227.
Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional
scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30–41.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com