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20. Yüzyılda Gelenek Ve Yenilik İngilizce Drama (Seri B)

Tradition And Novelty in 20th Century English Drama (Series B)

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Abstract (2. Language): 
In establishing England’s long lasting tradition of drama playwrights almost always deviated from the norms represented in foreign models that influenced them. The elements of native English drama as well as innovations by specific English playwrights interfered with the norm so as to produce a novel approach to the writing of plays in almost every period that marks the development of English drama since Shakespeare’s time. Shakespeare violated the unities of time, place and action, and never stuck to the unity of genre. Restoration drama produced a highly novel use of typically English witty dialogue cleverly imposed upon the familiar classical plot structure of comedy of manners, while in the 18th century, the unpromising native genres like heroic drama and sentimental comedy were parodied by other playwrights of the time. In the late 19th century Oscar Wilde updated the traditional form of comedy of manners by a subversive use of its cliches. In early 20th century Shaw came up with his realistic comedy of ideas by leaving out Ibsen’s melodramatic plot structures and blending his realistic drama of discussion with the Old Comedy of Ancient Greece represented by the work of Aristophanes. Post-war English drama enjoyed John Osborne’s and Arnold Wesker’s skillful use of the good old rhetoric in modern dress. Harold Pinter in turn blended the theatre of the absurd with elements of neonaturalism, while John Arden in ‘Sergeant Musgrave’s Dance’ juxtaposed Shakespearean discourse against the Brechtian. Peter Shaffer and Carol Churchill defamiliarised the stage by replacing the ‘familiar’ with the ‘unexpected’ through novel approaches to their subject matter. Finally, in postmodernising English drama, Tom Stoppard made full use of the tradition that had reached his time through a ‘playful’ treatment of all the novel attitudes that had produced the ‘playful’ quality of English playwriting.
Abstract (Original Language): 
İngiliz tiyatro geleneğinin oluşumunda, yazarlarõn yabancõ etkileri bire bir uygulamaktan kaçõndõ- karõ görülür. İngiliz tiyatrosuna ilişkin özellikler yanõnda yazarlarõn kişisel yaklaşõmlarõ da, yabancõ etkilerin bir oranda dönüştürülerek, ortaya özgün biçimler çõkarõlmasõnõ sağlamõştõr. Shakespeare’in ‘yer, zaman, olay birliği’ ve ‘tür birliği’ kurallarõna uymayõşõ buna örnektir. Restorasyon döneminde, yüzyõllardõr bilinen ‘töre komedisi’nin İngilizlere özgü ‘nükteli söyleşim’lerle zenginleştirilmesi, 18. yüzyõlõn ‘kahramanlõk dramõ’ ve ‘duygusal komedi’ türlerinin başka oyunlar yoluyla hicvedilmesi, 19. yüzyõlõn sonlarõnda Oscar Wilde’õn İngiliz töre komedisini, toplumda moda olan davranõş biçimlerini eleştirme adõna ters amaçlõ olarak kullanmasõ, İngiliz yazarlarõn kullandõklarõ dram türlerine her aşamada yenilik getirme çabalarõnõn göstergesidir. İkinci Dünya Savaşõ sonrasõ yazarlarõndan John Osborne ve Arnold Wesker’õn retorik söylevleri sõradan karakterlerin konuşmalarõnda uygulamasõ, John Arden ’in ‘Musgrave’in Dansõ’ oyununda Shakespeare ve Brecht’in tiyatro söylemlerini buluşturmasõ, Harold Pinter’õn absürd tiyatro teknikleri ile yeni-doğalcõ dramõ buluşturmasõ, Peter Shaffer’in ve Carol Churchill’in kendilerine özgü yaklaşõmlar kullanarak oyunlarõnda ‘tanõdõk’ durumlarõ’ ‘yabancõ’ kõlmalarõ yoluyla da ‘kural’ her zaman ‘kural dõşõ’ kullanõmlarla yeni ve farklõ olana açõlmõştõr. Aynõ özellik, İngiliz tiyatrosunun, ‘norm’lardan saparak ‘yenilik kotarma’ geleneğini tiyatroyu postmodernleştirme yolunda ‘oyunsu’ bir yaklaşõmla değerlendiren Tom Stoppard’õn yapõtlarõnda da gözlemlenmektedir.