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Şeyl Gazı (Kaya Gazı) ve Çevresel Etkileri

Shale Gas and Environmental Effects

Journal Name:

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DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.17776/csj.52270

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Author NameUniversity of AuthorFaculty of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
In recent years, natural gas production from shale formations (shale gas) is one of the most rapidly expanding trends in onshore hydrocarbon (oil and gas) exploration and production. Especially in the United States the development of technology within shale gas operations has been rapid within the last few years and is still ongoing globally. New developments about oil and gas sector create change to the environmental and socio-economic view, particularly in those areas where gas development is a new activity. Effective environmental impacts related with shale gas development occur at the global and territorial levels. These include impacts to climate change, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, local air quality, water availability, water quality, seismicity, and local communities. Dense well-spacings, noise from operations and increased truck traffic are further concerns for the environment and the public. Some environmental effects have already been effectively reduced using these new technological progress. For example, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions during shale gas production and the reduction of freshwater demands by increased recycling and re-use of wastewater. Other issues still need more attention from research and development, e.g. the prevention of induced seismicity.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Son yıllarda şeyl formasyonlarından doğal gaz üretimi (şeyl gaz) karadaki hidrokarbon (petrol ve gaz) arama ve üretimlerindeki en hızlı gelişen eğilimdir. Şeyl gaz operasyonlarında teknolojik gelişmeler özellikle Amerika’da son birkaç yılda daha da hızlanmış ve bu süreç küresel olarak ilerlemeye devam etmektedir. Petrol ve gaz sektöründeki yeni gelişmeler çevre ve sosyo-ekonomik alanda, özellikle de doğal gaz gelişiminin yeni olduğu alanlarda birçok değişimi de beraberinde getirmiştir. Şeyl gaz ile ilgili çevresel etkiler küresel ve yerel düzeylerde etkili olmaktadır. Bunlar iklim değişikliği, sera gazı (GHG) emisyonları, yerel hava kalitesi, su temini, su kalitesi, sismik aktivite, yerleşim yeri ve toplumsal etkilerdir. Yoğun kuyu aralıkları, operasyonlardan dolayı oluşan gürültü, artan kamyon trafiği halk ve çevre için düşünülmesi gereken diğer konuları oluşturmaktadır. Bazı çevresel etkiler ise yeni teknolojik gelişmeleri kullanarak azaltılmıştır. Örneğin, şeyl gazı üretimi sırasındaki sera gazları azaltılmaya başlanmış ve tatlı su ihtiyacı ise operasyonda kullanılan suyun arıtılması ve yeniden kullanılmasının yaygınlaşması sonucunda azalmaya başlamıştır. Sismik aktivitenin önlenmesi gibi diğer konular ise hala detaylı inceleme ve araştırmaya ihtiyaç duymaktadır.

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