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İlköğretim Fen Eğitiminde Probleme Dayalı Öğrenme Yaklaşımının Üst Düzey Düşünme Becerilerine Etkisi

The Effects of a Problem Based Learning Approach on Higher Level Thinking Skills in Primary Science Education

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Problem based learning (PBL) aims specifically at improving problem solving and comprehension skills. This approach introduces students to the various problems that they will likely encounter in real life, as well as the principles of how to solve those problems. PBL enables learners to develop a high level of understanding about any subject by solving the problems related to the subjects (Copland, 2000, p. 535). Furthermore, PBL has been shown to improve the analytical, synthetical, and lifelong learning skills of students (Harland, 2002). PBL motivates students to define the problem, search for concepts that will help to solve the problem, and practice cooperative learning. It improves communication skills, and generates an influential classroom learning process that uses real-life problems (Duch et al., 2001). PBL requires learners to work with a group or a team, copes with different situations, and improves self-learning and self-evaluation skills, as well as it motivates them to practice these skills (Woods, 1996). Lehtinen (2002) identifies the steps required to implement PBL as follows: a) clarifying concepts; b) defining the problem and listing the concepts which need to be learned; c) brainstorming; d) classifying systematically; e) formulating learning objectives; f) learning from lectures and self-study; g) clearing up; and h) reporting. Compared to traditional teaching methods, PBL has been shown to be more effective in increasing students’ academic achievement, as well as allowing them to work in groups and construct their knowledge through social negotiation (Goodnough, 2003; Polanco et al., 2004; Sungur et al., 2006). Therefore, PBL is highly appropriate for realizing the aims of science education. In this sense, PBL may also be an effective way to promote science learning, which is highly related to real life and requires students to possess high a level of critical thinking skills. In fact, many science educators have already investigated the effects of PBL in science education (Treagust & Peterson, 1998; Greenwald, 2000; Şenocak, 2005). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effectiveness of PBL in 6th grade students’ higher order thinking skills, such as comprehension, problem solving, and science process skills.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışma, İlköğretim Fen eğitiminde probleme dayalı öğrenme yaklaşımının öğrencilerin üst düzey düşünme becerilerine etkisini incelemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Araştırma, 2005-2006 öğretim yılının II. yarıyılında Konya ili, merkez Selçuklu ilçesi, Adnan Hadiye Sürmegöz İlköğretim Okulu’nda, 6. sınıf öğrencileri üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma, gerçek deneme modellerinden ön test-son test kontrol gruplu modele göre düzenlenmiştir. Bir sınıfta probleme dayalı öğrenme yaklaşımı, diğer sınıfta ise geleneksel öğretim yöntemleri uygulanmıştır. Ölçme aracı olarak, Fen Bilgisi Dersi “Yaşamımızı Yönlendiren Elektrik” ünitesi “Durgun Elektrik” bölümünün hedef davranışlarına göre hazırlanmış başarı testi kullanılmıştır. Bu ölçme aracı deney ve kontrol gruplarına ön test ve son test olarak uygulanmıştır. Veri analizi olarak t-testi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda; probleme dayalı öğrenme yaklaşımının öğrencilerin başarılarını artırdığı sonucuna varılmıştır.

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