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FEN ÖĞRETİMİNDE KAVRAM YANILGILARININ KARAKTERİSTİKLERİNİN TANIMLANMASI

DESCRIBING THE CHARACTERISTICS OF MISCONCEPTIONS IN SCIENCE TEACHING

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Many teachers think of their students as tabula rasa and assume a role as a teacher that is oriented to fill students' empty minds. The problem with this approach is that students' minds are not empty vessels that can be simply filled but already contain certain preconceptions and intuitions which pave the way to misconceptions. A misconception can be defined as an individual's understanding of a concept as substantially different from the commonly accepted scientific meaning of it. For students misconceptions are not different from other explanatory information and are organized very much the same way, developed for most scientific phenomena, and as a result are persistent to change. The reason is that misconceptions are developed by the students as a result of their observations in a long period of time and are invaluable for themselves. In case of not being able to overcome misconceptions the learning process is negatively effected. In this paper we discuss and present the reasons for developing misconceptions, their general characteristics and categories, and the ways of helping students to prevent developing misconceptions.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Çoğu öğretmen, öğrencilerini temiz zihinsel yazı tahtası olarak düşünür ve bu boş tahtayı doldurmak için rol üstlenir. Bu yaklaşımdaki problem, tahtaların boş olmadığı, zaten onların bazı önyargılar ve sezgiler içerdiğidir. Öğrencilerin deneyimsiz teorileri veya sezgileri kavram yanılgılarının geliştirilmesine yol açar. Kavram yanılgısı, bir kişinin bir kavramı anladığı şeklin, ortaklaşa kabul edilen bilimsel anlamından önemli derecede farklılık göstermesi şeklinde ifade edilebilir. Kavram yanılgıları, öğrenciler için diğer açıklayıcı bilgilerden fazla farklılık göstermezler, aynı şekilde düzenlenirler, yeni bilgilerin genelinde yer alırlar ve sonuç olarak kavram yanılgılarını ortadan kaldırmak zordur. Çünkü, yanlış kavramlar öğrencilerin kendi gözlemleri sonucu, uzun bir süreçte geliştirildikleri için bu kavramlar onlara daha yakın ve değerlidirler. Kavram yanılgılarının giderilememesi durumunda, öğrenme süreci ciddi bir şekilde engellenebilmektedir. Bu çalışmada, öğrencilerin kavram yanılgılarının oluşum nedenleri, genel özellikleri, sınıflandırılması ve yanılgıların oluşumlarının nasıl engellenebileceği tartışılmıştır.

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