Buradasınız

Obama’nın Afganistan Stratejisi: Değişim ve Süreklilik

Obama’s Afghanistan Strategy: Continuity and Change

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Keywords (Original Language):

Abstract (2. Language): 
Following the demise of the Cold War, the question of continuity or change in US foreign policy, a country which kept the position of the only remaining hegemonic power in the international system, has found broad acceptance in the literature. In view of that during Obama’s four-year long term in power points of overlap and contradictions between his and Bush’s presidency have been the focus of attention and several heated debates. In order to test these debates the most suitable foreign policy area has appeared to be the US strategy in Afghanistan, a subject that has commonly and closely been related to the concept of global war against terrorism. A closer look at both Bush and Obama’s presidency would reveal that pragmatism rather than choice has played a greater role in the determining US strategy in Afghanistan. In terms of the principle of defence, Obama’s Afghanistan strategy resembled closely to that of Bush’s, while the search for making the adopted strategy more successful and effective has been kept alive. Meanwhile, with the realization that the existing strategy would not work by merely putting security considerations at forefront of attempts to resolve the conflict, new targets have been set up such as paving the way for local elements to control their living environment by strengthening civil capacity in Afghanistan and then turning them into partners who could have a say in the future of their country. Yet again in the area of diplomacy, attempts to reconcile with local elements including the Taliban and efforts to bring the regional actors to take part in the ongoing peace process have become the new strands of the evolving strategy. In view of all these, it is possible to argue that in some respects Obama’s Afghanistan strategy resembles Bush’s while differing from it time to time and producing better results for the US.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Soğuk Savaş sonrası uluslararası sistem yapısı içerisinde egemen güç olma vasfını sürdüren yegâne ülke olarak ABD'nin dış politikasında dönemler arası süreklilik ya da değişim yaşanıp yaşanmadığı tartışmaları literatürde geniş yer bulmuştur. Bu anlamda Obama’nın dört yıllık iktidarı sürecinde Bush dönemi politikalarıyla kesişme ya da çatışma noktaları mercek altına alınmış ve değişik görüşler öne sürülmüştür. Bu tartışmalara belki de en net kaynaklık edebilecek alan, küresel terörle savaş konsepti ile doğrudan irtibatlı olan ABD’nin Afganistan stratejisidir. Bush ve Obama dönemlerinde ABD’nin Afganistan stratejisinin belirlenmesinde tercihlerden çok, pragmatizmin ağırlıklı rol oynadığı sonucu ortaya çıkmaktadır. Obama dönemi Afganistan stratejisi savunma bağlamında büyük oranda Bush dönemi stratejisini devam ettirmiş, ancak bu stratejiyi başarılı kılacak daha etkin bir yaklaşım benimsenmiştir. Diğer taraftan ilgili stratejinin yalnızca güvenlik boyutunu öne çıkararak başarılı olunamayacağı düşüncesiyle, Afganistan’da sivil kapasiteyi artırarak yerel unsurları kendi yaşam alanlarını kontrol edebilen, daha sonra da ülkelerinin geleceğinde söz sahibi olabilen ortaklar konumuna getirme hedeflenmiştir. Yine, Taliban dâhil yerel unsurlarla uzlaşma arayışına gidildiği, diplomatik çabalara ağırlık verilerek bölge ülkelerinin de çözüme dâhil edilmeye çalışıldığı bir sürece girilmiştir. Obama dönemi Afganistan politikasının, Bush dönemi ile kıyaslandığında kısmen birbiriyle örtüşen kısmen de farklılaşan boyutlara sahip olduğu, ancak daha başarılı bir sonuç ürettiği görülmektedir
FULL TEXT (PDF): 

REFERENCES

References: 

Kitaplar:
INDYK Martin S., LIEBERTHAL Kenneth G. ve O’HANLON
Michael E., Bending History: Barack Obama’s Foreign Policy,
Brookings Institution Press, Washington DC, 2012.
MANN James, The Obamians: The Struggle inside the White House
to Redefine American Power, Viking, New York, 2012.
PLOUFFE David, The Audacity to Win: The Inside Story and
Lessons of Barack Obama’s Historic Victory, Viking, New York, 2009.
SANGER David E., Confront and Conceal: Obama’s Secret Wars
and Surprising Use of American Power, Crown, New York, 2012.
SINGH Robert, Barack Obama’s post-American Foreign Policy: The
Limits of Engagement, Bloomsbury Academic, London ve New York,
2012.
WOODWARD Bob, Obama’s Wars, Simon & Schuster, Washington,
DC, 2010.
Makaleler:
BAPAT Navin A., “A Game Theoretic Analysis of the Afghan Surge”,
Foreign Policy Analysis, 2010, Sayı: 6 (3), 217-236.
HALPER Stefan, “President Obama at mid-term”, International
Affairs, 2011, Sayı: 87 (1), 1-11.
LINDSAY James M., “George W. Bush, Barack Obama and the Future
of US Global Leadership”, International Affairs, 2011, Sayı: 87 (4),
765-779.M. Turgut
MILNE David, “Pragmatism or What? The Future of US Foreign
Policy”, International Affairs, 2012, Sayı: 88 (5), 935-951.
OBAMA Barack, “Renewing American Leadership”, Foreign Affairs,
July–August 2007, Sayı: 84 (4), 2-16.
TADDEO Valentina, “US Response to Terrorism: A Strategic
Analysis of the Afghanistan Campaign”, Journal of Strategic
Security, 2010, Sayı: 3 (2), 27-38.
WILLIAMS M. J., “The Coming Revolution in Foreign Affairs:
Rethinking American National Security”, International Affairs, 2008,
Sayı: 84 (6), 1109-1129.
İnternet Kaynakları:
“Afghanistan Expects Bloody 2009”, AFP, 05 January 2009,
http://www.afghanistannewscenter.com/news/2009/january/jan52009.h
tml#1, (Erişim tarihi: 03.01.2013).
ARMITAGE Richard L. ve BERGER Samuel R., “US Strategy for
Pakistan and Afghanistan”, Independent Task Force Report No. 65,
Council on Foreign Relations, November 2010, http://www.cfr.org/
pakistan/us-strategy-pakistan-afghanistan/p23253, (Erişim tarihi:
06.01.2013).
BELASCO Amy, “The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global
War on Terror Operations Since 9/11”, CRS Report for Congress,
Congressional Research Service, 29 March 2011,
http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL33110.pdf, (Erişim tarihi:
06.01.2013).
BENNETT John T., “President Obama Goes All In on The Taliban”,
US News, 02 May 2012, http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/
2012/05/02/president-obama-goes-all-in-on-the-taliban, (Erişim tarihi:
14.02.2013).
BORGER Julian, “US will Appoint Afghan 'Prime Minister' to Bypass
Hamid Karzai”, The Guardian, 22 March 2009,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/22/us-afghan-plan-tobypass-karzai, (Erişim tarihi: 13.02.2013).
BUSH George W., “President Delivers State of the Union Address”,
For Immediate Release Office of the Press Secretary, 29 January
2002, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/
20020129-11.html, (Erişim tarihi: 03.01.2013).
BUSH George W., “Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the
American People”, For Immediate Release Office of the Press
Secretary, 20 September 2001, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.
archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html, (Erişim tarihi:
03.01.2013).
CAMPHAUSEN R. C., “The Spoils of War: China in Afghanistan”,
Digital Journal, 30 December 2009, http://digitaljournal.com/
article/284717, (Erişim tarihi: 16.02.2013).
CAVALLARO James ve diğerleri, “Living Under Drones_ Death,
Injury and Trauma to Civilians from US Drone Practices in Pakistan”,
Special Report, International Human Rights and Conflict Resolution
Clinic (Stanford Law School) and Global Justice Clinic (NYU School
of Law), September 2012, http://livingunderdrones.org/report/, (Erişim
tarihi: 11.02.2013).
CHRISTIA Fotini ve Michael Semple, “Flipping the Taliban: How to
Win in Afghanistan”, Foreign Affairs, 2009, 88 (4), 34-45,
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65151/fotini-christia-andmichael-..., (Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2013).
COLL Steve, “What If We Fail in Afghanistan”, The New Yorker, 16
November 2009, http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/stevecoll/
2009/11/what-if-we-fail-in-afghanistan.html, (Erişim tarihi:
05.01.2013).
DE YOUNG Karen, “Neighboring Countries Ponder a post-occupation
Afghanistan”, Washington Post, 04 October 2010,
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/11/04/
AR2010110406990.html, (Erişim tarihi: 16.02.2013).
“Fact Sheet: The U.S.-Afghanistan Strategic Partnership Agreement”,
The White House Office of the Press Secretary, 01 May 2012,
http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/05/01/fact-sheet-usafgha..., (Erişim tarihi: 13.01.2013)
FERRIS-ROTMAN Amie, “Russia Vying for Afghan Relationship
amid Pullout”, Reuters, 16 May 2011,
http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/16/russia-afghanistan-securityidA..., (Erişim tarihi: 16.02.2013).
FLINTOFF Corey, “Can Obama and Karzai Mend U.S.-Afghan
Relations?”, NPR, 11 May 2010, http://www.npr.org/templates/story/
story.php?storyId=126742141, (Erişim tarihi: 13.02.2013).
JACKSON David, “Obama’s Surge in Afghanistan Ends”, USA
Today, 21 September 2012, http://content.usatoday.com/communities/
theoval/post/2012/09/21/obamas-surge-in-afghanistan-ends/70000832/
1#.USVIiKVUE2s, (Erişim tarihi: 19.01.2013).
KILCULLEN David ve EXUM Andrew McDonald, “Death From
Above, Outrage down below”, The New York Times, 16 May 2009,
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/17/opinion/17exum.html?pagewante
d=all, (Erişim tarihi: 11.02.2013).
LUBOLD Gordon, “The Surge in Afghanistan Ends”, Foreign Policy,
14 September 2012, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/
2012/09/14/the_surge_in_afghanistan_ends, (Erişim tarihi:
19.01.2013).
MASTERS Jonathan, “Targeted Killings”, Council on Foreign
Relations, 08 February 2013, http://www.cfr.org/counterterrorism/
targeted-killings/p9627, (Erişim tarihi: 21.02.2013)
MILLER Greg, “Plan for Hunting Terrorists Signals U.S. Intends to
Keep Adding Names to Kill Lists”, The Washington Post, 23 October
2012, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/19/us-drone-strikesafghanistan-..., (Erişim tarihi: 06.01.2013)
“Mullen: Pakistan's ISI Spy Agency has 'Militant Links'”, BBC News,
21 April 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-
13153538, (Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2013).
NATO/ISAF, Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF): Training
and Development, Media Backgrounder, December 2012,
http://www.nato.int/nato_static/assets/pdf/pdf_2012_12/20121205_121
205-ansf-backgrounder-en.pdf, (Erişim tarihi: 19.01.2013).
OBAMA Barack, “The War We Need to Win”, Woodrow Wilson
Center, 1 August 2007, http://www.wilsoncenter.org/events/docs/
abgmasp0807.pdf, (Erişim tarihi: 03.01. 2013).
“Obama Orders 17,000 US Troops to Afghanistan”, Reuters, 18
February 2009, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2009/02/18/us-usa-afghantroops-idUKTRE51G6..., (Erişim tarihi: 09.01.2013).
“Obama to Send 30,000 More US Troops to Afghanistan”, BBC News,
02 December 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8388939.stm, (Erişim
tarihi: 09.01.2013).
PAULSON Scott, “President Obama Wants to Extend Billions of
Dollars in Aid to Afghanistan”, Examiner, 07 July 2012,
http://www.examiner.com/article/president-obama-to-extend-billionsof-dol..., (Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2013).
PLANTY Donald J. ve PERITO Robert M., “Police Transition in
Afghanistan”, Special Report, United States Institute of Peace,
February 2013, http://www.usip.org/files/resources/SR322.pdf, (Erişim
tarihi: 01.02.2013).
“Remarks by President Obama in Address to the Nation from
Afghanistan”, The White House Office of the Press Secretary, 01
May 2012, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/05/01/
remarks-president-address-nation-afghanistan, (Erişim tarihi:
11.02.2013).
“Remarks by the President on a New Strategy for Afghanistan and
Pakistan”, The White House Office of the Press Secretary, 27 March
2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-by-thePresident-on-a-..., (Erişim
tarihi: 14.02.2013).
ROSALSKY Greg, “As Afghan Security Forces Training Flounders,
Pentagon Alters Progress Levels, Hearing Testimony Shows”,
Huffington Post, 27 July 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/
2012/07/25/afghan-security-forces-training_n_1703000.html, (Erişim
tarihi: 19.01.2013).
RUBIN Alissa J., “Afghans to Form Local Forces to Fight Taliban”,
The New York Times, 14 July 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/
2010/07/15/world/asia/15afghan.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0, (Erişim
tarihi: 08.01.2013).
RUBIN Barnett R., “Saving Afghanistan”, Foreign Affairs,
January/February 2007, 86 (1), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/
62270/barnett-r-rubin/saving-afghanistan, (Erişim tarihi: 03.01.2013)
SHACHTMAN Noah, “Military Stats Reveal Epicenter of U.S. Drone
War”, Wired Magazine, 11 September 2012, http://www.wired.com/
dangerroom/2012/11/drones-afghan-air-war/, (Erişim tarihi: 28.01.2013).
SCHMITT Eric ve SHANKER Thom, “General Calls for More U.S.
Troops to Avoid Afghan Failure”, The New York Times, 20 September
2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/21/world/asia/
21afghan.html?_r=0, (Erişim tarihi: 05.01.2013).
“Special Operations Triple in Afghanistan-McChrystal”, The New
York Times, 10 June 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/
2010/06/10/world/international-uk-afghanistan-usa-forces.html?ref=
world, (Erişim tarihi: 09.01.2013).
STARR Barbara, “Obama Approves Afghanistan Troop Increase”,
CNN, 18 February 2009, http://articles.cnn.com/2009-02-
17/politics/obama.troops_1_afghanistan-troop-increase-trooplevels?_s=PM:POLITICS, (Erişim tarihi: 05.02.2013).
STEBNER Beth, “Revealed: U.S. Carried Out 333 Drone Strikes in
Afghanistan This Year Alone - More Than the Entire Drone Strikes in
Pakistan Over the Past Eight Years Combined”, Daily Mail, 21
December 2012, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-
2251418/Revealed-U-S-carried-333-drone-strikes-Afghanistan-year--
entire-drone-strikes-Pakistan-past-years-COMBINED.html, (Erişim
tarihi: 28.01.2013).
“Two-thirds of top Qaeda Leaders 'Removed' Since 2009 -Obama
Aide”, The Chicago Tribune, 18 December 2012,
http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-12-18/news/sns-rt-usaqaedaoffici..., (Erişim tarihi: 11.02.2013).
U.S. Department of Defense, “Report on Progress toward Security and
Stability in Afghanistan”, Report to Congress, Government Printing
Office, Washington DC, April 2010, http://www.defense.gov/pubs/
pdfs/Report_Final_SecDef_04_26_10.pdf, (Erişim tarihi: 12.01.2013).
“U.S. anti-terror Covert Ops”, Center for Research on Globalization,
18 November 2008, http://www.globalresearch.ca/u-s-anti-terrorcovert-ops/11015, (Erişim tarihi: 17.01.2013)
“US Drone Strikes in Afghanistan Rose Sharply Last Year, UN
Reports”, The Guardian, 19 February 2013,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/19/us-drone-strikesafghanistan-..., (Erişim tarihi: 21.02.2013).
WILLIAMSON Elizabeth ve SPIEGEL Peter, “Obama Says Afghan
War 'of Necessity'”, The Wall Street Journal, 17 August 2009,
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125054391631638123.html, (Erişim
tarihi: 03.01.2013).
“White Paper of the Interagency Policy Group's Report on U.S. Policy
toward Afghanistan and Pakistan”, 27 March 2009,
http://www.whitehouse.gov/assets/documents/AfghanistanPakistan_White_Pap..., (Erişim tarihi: 14.02.2013).

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com