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ÖĞRENCİLERİN ANNE BABA TUTUMLARINI ALGILAMA BİÇİMLERİ VE ŞİDDETE EĞİLİMLERİ

STUDENTS PERCEPTION FORMS OF ATTITUDES OF PARENTS AND TENDENCIES TO VIOLENCE

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DOI: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.7696

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Abstract (2. Language): 
Introduction: The foundation of the society definitely consists of the families. One of the main reasons of this is that families bring children who are the source of the next generation into the World. Parents have big responsibilities for preparing their children to the social life. In changing World, parents’ duties are not only meeting the needs of basic psychological necessities like nutritional requirement and harbouring of their children, but also they must show an interest and love to their children and help them to maximize their personal development. Attitudes of parents to each other and their children constitute the first samples in children’s lives. Because of this reality, the relations in the family should be healthy relationship required mutual love and respect. Violence should be not become manner of self-expression of a person. Researchers conducted show that violence tendencies especially among children reach critical extents recently (Çeçen, 2012; Manap, 2012; Bütün et. al, 2013; Demir, 2013; Şener et. al, 2013:7). Violence is using power to damage other people without any right (Öğülmüş, 2007: 74). According to Schultz, violence is one of the defense mechanisms for survival (Lore & Schultz, 1996: 24-28). Parents’ violent attitudes directed to their children in the family and children’s violent attitudes and behaviours directed to their parents cause that children exhibit attitudes directed to violence in normal life as well. Child continues his/her violence behaviour reflected his/her behaviours in family whether in school environment or other friends’ environment. Tendencies to violence in the family also rise to the occasion in different forms (Ayan, 2007: 206-214). Families have an important role in developing social attitudes of individual. Since, socialization begins in the family. The children having adjustment disorder are products of unsuccessful mother-father-child relationship (Üstün et. al, 2007:111). Interaction styles of mother and father with each other can help us in estimating children’s moral development (Walker & Henning, 1999: 359). Races, ethnic background, existing geographical regions, believes, genders, childhood experiences, and concerns have big effects on parents’ attitudes in bringing up children (Budd et. al, 2012: 258-260). Schools are undoubtedly one of the places where violence is seeing most. To prevent violence in schools, studies can be done like increasing the number of psychological counselors attendant in schools according to student numbers, providing educations for students to develop problem solving skills, taking violence preventive precautions by school management before violence occurs, putting students numbers in order according to classes physical conditions and teacher numbers, attaching importance to teacher-student-school and parent interaction, focusing attention on social activities intended to students, providing educations to parents and teachers for violence applications, providing educations of humanistic values, transmitting toleration, love and respect values to students, preventing violence encouraging broadcast in media, raising awareness of teachers about what they can do against behaviours including violence, being paid much more interests with the students individually problems by experts (Üstün, Yılmaz, and Kırbaş, 2007: 129-130; Ersanlı, 2007: 220-221; Göktaş, 2007: 294; Gözütok, 2008: 254-258). Aim: The aim of this study is to exhibit that is there any significant difference between parents’ attitudes perceived by students and their violence tendencies. Method: This research is a descriptive survey model study trying to determine perception manners of parents’ attitudes of 6. 7. and 8. class secondary school students. The population of the research consists of 3781 (1850 girl and 2021 boy) students educated in public schools from Samsun province Terme district in 2011-2012 school year. Research sample consists of 682 6. 7. and 8. class willing students selected with random sampling method from 7 schools in 12 schools in Samsun province Terme district. After missing filled and destroyed data collection tools were removed, 684 scales were received for consideration and research sample was constituted. Data Collection Tools: Parent Attitude Scale: Parent Attitude Scale was developed by Lamborn, Mounts, Steinberg and Dornbush in 1991 and was adapted by Yılmaz in 2000. Scale comprise of 26 items. As regards to answers given to the scales, parents’ attitudes perceived by children are categorized as democratic, authoritative, tolerant and negligent. Attitude Scale directed to violence: Attitude Scale directed to violence was developed by Blevins in 2001 to measure the tendency to violence of students. Attitude Scale directed to violence has one factor. Scale consists of 11 items and has four grading. It is wanted from individuals ranking per statement among 1 and 4 (1=totally disagree, 2=disagree, 3=agree, 4=totally agree). Points given to the items by students are added up and total point is obtained. Obtained total point states tendency to violence of individuals not transformed to behavior yet. High points from the scale show that attitudes to violence and tendency to violence is high. Findings: According to the findings from the study, while students who have the lowest attitudes to violence perceived their parents as democratic, on the other hand, students who have the highest attitudes to violence perceived their parents as negligent. It was determined that tendency to violence of students perceived their parents as democratic is lower than tendency to violence of students perceived their parents as negligent. It was seen that tendency to violence of students perceived their parents’ attitudes as authoritative is lower than students’ tendency to violence perceived their parents as tolerant and negligent. It was determined that tendency to violence of students perceived their parents’ attitudes as tolerant is lower than tendency to violence of students perceived their parents’ attitudes as negligent. There is not any significant difference between the students perceived their parents attitudes as democratic and the students perceived their parents as authoritative. Discussion and implications: According to the findings from the study, it was determined that tendency to violence of students perceived their parents as democratic is lower than tendency to violence of students perceived their parents as tolerant and negligent. Besides, It was seen that tendency to violence of students perceived their parents’ attitudes as authoritative is lower than students’ tendency to violence perceived their parents as tolerant and negligent. However, It was determined that tendency to violence of students perceived their parents’ attitudes as tolerant is lower than tendency to violence of students perceived their parents’ attitudes as negligent. Finally, there is not any significant difference between the students perceived their parents attitudes as democratic and the students perceived their parents as authoritative. Unhealthy family environment canalizes the children to violent behaviors. When the literature is analyzed, the parents’ attitudes have important effects on tendencies to violence of children and these effects are seen as either positive or negative. According to a research made by Avcı, while the students who have the most tendency to aggressiveness perceive both their mothers and their fathers as careless, the students who have the least tendency to aggressiveness perceive their mothers and fathers as careful, that is democratic (Avcı, 2010: 492). A child raised in an aggressive family environment takes an example by their parents’ attitudes of violence and then he/she can behave like his/her parent in his/her life. The children behaving inappropriately are generally the children that grown up in family environment with full of inappropriate behaviours (Üstün, Yılmaz, and Kırbaş, 2007: 111). Implications: 1.It is obtainable that it can be organized parents attitudes seminars to parents of students by school psychological consultants, and with these seminars, it can be ensured the awareness of the students’ parents about various parents’ attitudes. 2.It is obtainable that it can be provided educations for parents “democratic parents’ attitudes educations” by school psychological consultants, and with these educations, relations between parents and their children can be strengthened. 3.It can be prepared parents education cds with the collaborations of Guidance Research Centers, National Education Directorships and universities and these cds can be sent to the schools without psychological consultants. 4.To strengthen communication channels between parents and their children and develop empathy ability, it can be organized activities like role changing of children with their parents in schools.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Bu çalışmanın amacı öğrencilerinin anne baba tutumlarını algılama biçimleri ve şiddete yönelik eğilimlerinin farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığının ortaya konulmasıdır. Bu araştırmanın evrenini Samsun ilinin Terme ilçesinde öğrenim gören 6., 7. ve 8. sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemini ise 296 kız, 338 erkek öğrenci olmak üzere toplam 634 öğrenci oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın veri toplama araçları olarak 2001 yılında Blevins tarafından geliştirilen ve 2005 yılında Buluş, Duru ve Balkıs tarafından Türkçeye çevrilen Şiddete Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği ve 2000 yılında Yılmaz tarafından geliştirilen Anne Baba Tutum Ölçekleri kullanılmıştır. Verilerin istatistiksel analizi için SPSS 17 programı kullanılmış; veriler non-parametrik olarak saptandığı için Kruskal Wallis ve Mann Whitney U testleri uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda en düşük şiddete yönelik tutum puanına sahip olan öğrenciler anne-babalarını ‘Demokratik’ algılayan öğrenciler olurken, en fazla şiddete yönelik tutum puanına sahip olan öğrenciler ise anne-babalarını ‘İhmalkâr’ algılayan öğrenciler olmuştur. Anne-baba tutumlarını demokratik algılayan öğrencilerin şiddete eğilimleri; ihmalkâr ve hoşgörülü algılayanlara göre daha düşük olarak saptanmıştır. Anne-baba tutumlarını otoriter algılayan öğrencilerin şiddete eğilimlerinin; hoşgörülü ve ihmalkâr algılayanlara göre daha düşük olduğu görülmüştür. Anne-baba tutumlarını hoşgörülü algılayanların şiddete eğilimleri; ihmalkâr algılayanlardan daha düşük düzeyde olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırmada elde edilen diğer bir bulguya göre ise anne-baba tutumlarını demokratik algılayan öğrenciler ile otoriter algılayan öğrencilerin şiddete eğilimleri arasında anlamlı bir fark yoktur.

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