Relationship Between Student Characteristics and Academic Achievement in Distance Education and Application on Students of Anadolu University

Journal Name:

Publication Year:

Author NameUniversity of Author
Abstract (2. Language): 
This study emphasizes on relationship between academic achievements and student characteristics like demographic properties (age, gender, employed/unemployed), self-efficacy beliefs of distance education, self-regulation, and achievement goals for distance education. Sampling of the study comprised of 124 freshmen year distance education students. Data are presented regarding the relationships between self-efficacy of distance education and academic achievement. Self-regulation and achievement goals of students were not correlated with academic achievement, significantly. Boy and girl students were differing significantly with respect to self-regulation. A significant relationship was seen with respect to self-efficacy of distance education, self-regulation and achievement goals.



Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S.Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Human
Behavior (Vol.4, pp. 71-81) New York: Academic Press.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
Barron, K. E. & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2001). Achievement goals and optimal motivation:
Testing multiple goal models. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, (5), 706-
Butler, D. & Winne, P. (1995). Feedback and self-regulated learning: A theoretical
synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 65 (3), 245-281.
Chan, M. S. C, Yum, J. , Fan, R. Y. K., Jegede, O. & Taplin, M.(1999, October). Locus of
control and metacognition in open and distance learning: A comparative study of low and
high achievers. Paper presented at the 13th. Annual Conference, Asian Association of Open
Universities. The Central Radio & TV University, Beijing, China.
Chemers, M. M., Hu, L. & Garcia, B. F. (2001). Academic self-efficacy and first-year college
student performance and adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology. 93(1), 55-64.
Joo, Y.-J. , Bong, M. & Choi, H-J. (2000). Self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, academic
self-efficacy and internet self-efficacy in web-based instruction. Educational Technology
Research and Development, 48 (2), 5-17.
Kovach, J.C. (2000, October). Self-regulatory strategies in an accounting principles course:
Effects on student achievement. Paper presented at the Mid-Western Educational Research
Association, Chicago, Illinois, [On-line]. Available at:
Lee, I-S. (2002). Gender differences in self-regulated on-line learning strategies within
Korea’s University context. Educational Technology Research and Development, 50 (1),
Lim, C. K. (2001). Computer self-efficacy, academic self-concept, and other predictor of
satisfaction and future participation of adult distance learners. The American Journal of
Distance Education. 15(2), 41-51.
Mc Isaac, M. S. & Gunawardena, C. N. (1996). Distance education. In Jonassen, D. H. (Ed.),
Handbook of research for education communications and technology (pp. 403-437). New
York: Macmillan.
Middleton, M. & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: A
underexplored aspect of goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 710-718.
Midgley, C., Maehr, M.L., Hruda, L.Z., Anderman, E. and others. (2000). Manual for the
Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales. [On-line]. Available
Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to
academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38
(1), 30-38.
Murphy, K.L. (1989, March). A study of motivation in Turkish distance education. Paper
presented at the annuel meeting of the American Educational Research Association. San
Fransisco, CA.
Oxford, Re., Park-Oh, Y. , Ito, S., & Sumrall, M. (1993). Factors affecting achievement in a
satellite-delivered Japanese language program. The American Journal of Distance
Education. (7), 1.
Pajares, F., & Miller, M.D. (1994). Role of self-efficacy and self-concept beliefs in
mathematical problem solving: A path analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (2),
Pajares, F., & Kranzler, J. (1995). Self-efficacy beliefs and general mental ability in
mathematical problem solving. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(1), 426-443.
Pajares, F., Britner, S.L., & Valiante, G. (2000). Relation between Achievement goals and
self-beliefs of middle school students in writing and science. Contemporary Educational
Psychology, 25, 406-422.
Pajares. F. (2002). Self-efficacy beliefs in academic contexts: An outline.[On-line].Available
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning
components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82
(1), 33-40.
Roblyer, M. D. (1999). Is choice important in distance learning? A study of student motives
for taking internet-based courses at the high school and community college levels. Journal
of Research on Computing in Education, 32(1), 157-172.
Schunk, D. H. (1989). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In. Zimmerman,
B. J., & Schunk, D.H. (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theory,
research, and practice (pp. 83-110). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Schunk, D. H. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychologist, 26,
(3 & 4), 207-231.
Schunk, D. H. (1995). Self-efficacy and education and instruction. In Maddux, J.E. (Ed.),
Self-efficacy, adaptation and adjustment: Theory, research, and application (pp.281-303).
New York: Plenum Press.
Sewart, D., Keegan, D., & Holmberg,B. (1993). Distance Education:International
Perspectives. Billings & Sons. Limt.
Suciati. (1990). The effect of motivation on academic achievement in a distance education
settings: An examination of latent variables. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Syracuse
Turner, J.E. & Schallert, D. L. (2001). Expectancy-value relationships of shame reactions
and shame resiliency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(2), 320-329.
Wang, A.Y. & Newlin, M. H. (2002). Predictors of web student performance: The role of
self-efficacy and reasons for taking an on-line class. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(2),
Willis, B. (1994). Distance education strategies and tools. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs.
Zimmerman, B. J. (1989). A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 329-339.
Zimmerman, B. J. & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated
learning : Relating grade, sex and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use. Journal of
Educational Psychology, 82(1), 51-59.
Zimmerman, B. J., Bandura, A., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1992). Motivation for academic
attainment: The role of self-efficacy beliefs and personal goal setting. American
Educational Research Journal, 29(3), 663-676.

Thank you for copying data from http://www.arastirmax.com