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Serbest Radikal Biyokimyasının Tarihsel Süreçteki Gelişimi

The Evolution of Free Radical Biochemistry in Historical Perspective

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Abstract (2. Language): 
The existence of free radicals, as chemical entities, was inferred 100 years ago but not universally accepted for nearly 40 years. The existence and importance of free radicals in biological systems was not recognized until the mid 1950’s, by a small number of visionary scientists who can be credited with founding the field of reactive oxygen biochemistry. For most of the remaining 20th century, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were considered a type of biochemical “rusting agent” that caused tissue damage and disease. As we enter 21st century, reactive oxygen biochemistry is maturing as a discipline and establishing its importance among the biomedical sciences. It is now recognized that virtually every disease state involves some degree of oxidative stress. Moreover, we are now beginning to recognize that ROS are produced in a well-regulated manner to help maintain homeostasis on the cellular level in normal, healthy tissue. Emerging technologies, particularly proteomic technologies are discussed in scientific community that will facilitate further evolution in the field of free radical biochemistry.
Abstract (Original Language): 
Serbest radikallerin kimyasal olarak mevcudiyeti konusunda, yaklaşık 100 yıl önce bir sonuca ulaşılmakla birlikte, varlıkları ilk 30-40 yıl boyunca dünya çapında kabul görmemiştir. Serbest radikallerin biyolojik sistemlerdeki varlığı ve önemi 1950’lerin ortalarına kadar kabul görmese de, reaktif oksijen biyokimyasını kuran bir grup bilim adamının katkıları ile varlıkları ve önemleri aydınlatılmıştır. Yirminci yüzyılın ikinci yarısının büyük bir kısmında, reaktif oksijen türevlerine, doku hasarı ve hastalığına yol açan bir tür biyokimyasal “oksitleyici ajan” gözüyle bakılmıştır. Yirmibirinci yüzyıla girerken reaktif oksijen biyokimyası bir disiplin olarak olgunlaşmış ve biyomedikal bilimler arasındaki önemi yerleşmiştir. Günümüzde hemen her hastalığın bir dereceye kadar oksidatif strese bağlı olduğu kabul edilmektedir. Ayrıca günümüzde, reaktif oksijen türevlerinin (ROS) homeostazisini devam ettirmeye yardımcı olmak üzere, normal ve sağlıklı dokuların hücrelerinde sıkı-kontrollü bir şekilde oluştuğu kabul görmeye başlamıştır. Ortaya çıkan yeni teknolojilerin, özellikle proteomik teknolojilerin, reaktif oksijen biyokimyası alanında ilerideki gelişmeleri kolaylaştıracağı konusu bilimsel çevrelerce tartışılmaktadır.

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